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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit
Variable KindComponent
ThemeBasic (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionWhat is the level of aggregation of this resource unit?
Select OptionsCommunity, Population, Guild
ImportanceNature is hierarchically structured and can thus be managed at different levels of aggregation, such as at the species or guild level. This variable indicates what level of aggregation this resource unit is conceived at.

"This variable to the level of ecological aggregation for natural resource units Population: A group of individuals of the same species living within a particular geographical area. Guild: A group of species/populations that exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way"" (Root 1967)."


Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna PopulationWestern Bluefin tuna are a subpopulation of the species Thunnus thynnus that spawns in the Western Atlantic Ocean (i.e. the Americas)
Galapagos Sea CucumberPopulationPopulation Brown sea cucumber (Isostichopus fuscus). Manged as region stocks as opposed to the archipelago stock as a whole.
Eastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaPopulationEastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna are a meta population or stock of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna that spawn in the East Atlantic and Mediterranean. It is generally accepted that they do not interbreed with the Western stock.
OzoneNot Applicable
GBR target fish 
GBR target fishPopulationFor some target fish species distinct sub-populations are identified within the GBR
Patagonian Toothfish PopulationPatagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) are a species of fish with a broad circum-Antarctic distribution, largely found off the tip of South America and around subantarctic islands, including Macquarie Island and the Heard and McDonald Islands. There appear to be distinct populations in the South Indian Ocean (including fish found around the Heard and McDonald Islands, Crozet, Kerguelen, Prince Edward and Marion Islands), the South Atlantic (including fish found around South Georgia, North Scotia Ridge), the Patagonian Shelf, and a distinct stock off Macquarie (see Collins et al. 2010, Appleyard 2002, Appleyard 2004).
NWHI Lobster FisheryGuildThe NWHI lobster fishery consisted (it was officially closed in 2011 to all commercial fishing) of the Spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) and Slipper lobster (Scyllarides squamosus).
Macquarie Island Royal PenguinPopulationRoyal penguin are a species of penguin closely related to the more common and widely distributed Macaroni Penguin.
Light Mantled AlbatrossPopulationThe light mantled albatross is a species of albatross found throughout the circumpolar region.
Wakatobi coral coverGuildMultiple species
Wakatobi Green TurtlePopulation
Wakatobi fish spawningGuildFish spawning aggregation of Lutjanus bohar (red snapper), Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (brown-marbled grouper) and Plectropomus areolatus (square/tailed coral grouper).
Galapagos Green TurtlePopulationPopulation.
Raja Ampat Reef Fish GuildMultiple reef fish species
Raja Ampat Coral CoverGuildMultiple coral species
Galapagos SharksGuildThe GMR is home to 33 species of shark (see chapter by Hearn et al., 2014 for list - table 2.1)
Raja Ampat Green TurtlePopulationPopulation
NWHI Green TurtlePopulationHawaiian sub population of Green Turtles (Central North Pacific population). More than 90% of the Hawaiian population of green turtles nests at French Frigate Shoals in the NWHI.
California Humpback WhalePopulationThe California humpback whale is one of at least three separate populations of Megaptera novaeangliae found in the North Pacific. The International Whaling Commission (IWC) considers all the humpbacks in the North Pacific to be one stock (SIMoN 2015).
Community D Fish ResourcesCommunity
Community A Fish ResourcesCommunity
Community C Fish ResourcesCommunity
Community B Fish ResourcesCommunity
Svalbard Polar Bear The polar bears in the Nature Reserves in Svalbard represent a sub-set of the larger polar bear community across the Arctic.
Seaflower coral reefsNot Applicable
Seaflower groupersMissing
Svalbard BelugaPopulation
Community G Fish ResourcesCommunity
Community E Fish ResourcesCommunity
Community F Fish ResourcesCommunity
Community H Fish ResourcesCommunity
Svalbard ShrimpPopulationThe shrimp at Svalbard are considered part of the larger Barents Sea / Svalbard population, and are managed as one stock, because there are no genetic differences between these two regions (Bjordal et al 2004).
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhalePopulationThe southern right whale is 1 of 3 species of large, baleen whales classified as right whales and belonging to the genus Eubalaena. They are closely related to the northern hemisphere right whales but the species are reproductively isolated from one another by the geographic separation of calving grounds and asynchronous breeding seasons (Townsend 1935). Australian southern right whale populations have different mtDNA haplotype frequencies from other southern hemisphere populations although nuclear DNA structuring is low (Baker et al. 1999; Carroll et al. 2011; Patenaude et al. 2007). Southern right whales in Australian waters comprise two populations, one in the south-west and one in the south-east, both of which are genetically differentiated (based on mtDNA haplotype frequencies) (Carroll et al. 2011). The Australian population is estimated at 3500 individuals with 2900 of those occurring in the south-west region between Cape Leeuwin and Ceduna during breeding season (Bannister et al. 2011), and make up about 83% of the total estimated Australian southern right whale population.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaPopulationA single spawning area, morphological uniformity, distribution of larvae and tag return data suggest that SBT area a single population (Caton 1991; Grewe et al. 1997; Farley and Davis 1998; Patterson et al. 2008) High vagility in relation to the geographical distribution also indicates limited potential for population differentiation (Caton1994).
King PenguinPopulationKing penguin are a species of penguin related to Emperor penguins (same genus). Their population is found throughout the subantarctic, with breeding colonies on subantarctic islands, including at Heard and McDonald Islands.
GBR Green Turtle There are two genetically distinct stocks (Northern and Southern) of Green Turtle in the GBR (GBRMPA 2014).
Cenderwasih green turtlePopulation
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionPopulation
Svalbard KittiwakePopulationRissa tridactyla
Cenderwasih target fishGuildMultiple reef fish species
Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)PopulationL. gahi are found mostly within Falkland Islands and off of Chile and Argentina. This stock is considered one species, but is divided into two cohorts (an autumn-spawning cohort and a spring-spawning cohort).
Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)Population
California market squid (Loligo opalescens)PopulationOne population from Mexico to Alaska that spawns throughout the year (new cohort added almost monthly) (FMP 2005).
New Zealand Sea Lion