|Variable Component Type
|Natural Resource Unit
|Basic (learn about themes)
|SESMAD, Fiji fisheries
|What is the level of aggregation of this resource unit?
|Community, Population, Guild
|Nature is hierarchically structured and can thus be managed at different levels of aggregation, such as at the species or guild level. This variable indicates what level of aggregation this resource unit is conceived at.
This variable refers to the level of ecological aggregation for natural resource units Population: A group of individuals of the same species living within a particular geographical area. Guild: A group of species/populations that exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way.
|Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna
|Western Bluefin tuna are a subpopulation of the species Thunnus thynnus that spawns in the Western Atlantic Ocean (i.e. the Americas)
|Galapagos Sea Cucumber
|Population Brown sea cucumber (Isostichopus fuscus). Manged as region stocks as opposed to the archipelago stock as a whole.
|Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna
|Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna are a meta population or stock of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna that spawn in the East Atlantic and Mediterranean. It is generally accepted that they do not interbreed with the Western stock.
|Community G Fish Resources
|Community F Fish Resources
|Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)
|New Zealand Sea Lion
|GBR target fish
|GBR target fish
|For some target fish species distinct sub-populations are identified within the GBR
|Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) are a species of fish with a broad circum-Antarctic distribution, largely found off the tip of South America and around subantarctic islands, including Macquarie Island and the Heard and McDonald Islands. There appear to be distinct populations in the South Indian Ocean (including fish found around the Heard and McDonald Islands, Crozet, Kerguelen, Prince Edward and Marion Islands), the South Atlantic (including fish found around South Georgia, North Scotia Ridge), the Patagonian Shelf, and a distinct stock off Macquarie (see Collins et al. 2010, Appleyard 2002, Appleyard 2004).
|NWHI Lobster Fishery
|The NWHI lobster fishery consisted (it was officially closed in 2011 to all commercial fishing) of the Spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) and Slipper lobster (Scyllarides squamosus).
|Macquarie Island Royal Penguin
|Royal penguin are a species of penguin closely related to the more common and widely distributed Macaroni Penguin.
|Wakatobi coral cover
|Light Mantled Albatross
|The light mantled albatross is a species of albatross found throughout the circumpolar region.
|Wakatobi Green Turtle
|Wakatobi fish spawning
|Fish spawning aggregation of Lutjanus bohar (red snapper), Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (brown-marbled grouper) and Plectropomus areolatus (square/tailed coral grouper).
|Galapagos Green Turtle
|Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)
|L. gahi are found mostly within Falkland Islands and off of Chile and Argentina. This stock is considered one species, but is divided into two cohorts (an autumn-spawning cohort and a spring-spawning cohort).
|Raja Ampat Reef Fish
|Multiple reef fish species
|King penguin are a species of penguin related to Emperor penguins (same genus). Their population is found throughout the subantarctic, with breeding colonies on subantarctic islands, including at Heard and McDonald Islands.
|Raja Ampat Coral Cover
|Multiple coral species
|The GMR is home to 33 species of shark (see chapter by Hearn et al., 2014 for list - table 2.1)
|Raja Ampat Green Turtle
|NWHI Green Turtle
|Hawaiian sub population of Green Turtles (Central North Pacific population). More than 90% of the Hawaiian population of green turtles nests at French Frigate Shoals in the NWHI.
|California Humpback Whale
|The California humpback whale is one of at least three separate populations of Megaptera novaeangliae found in the North Pacific. The International Whaling Commission (IWC) considers all the humpbacks in the North Pacific to be one stock (SIMoN 2015).
|Community D Fish Resources
|Community A Fish Resources
|Community C Fish Resources
|Community B Fish Resources
|Svalbard Polar Bear
|The polar bears in the Nature Reserves in Svalbard represent a sub-set of the larger polar bear community across the Arctic.
|Seaflower coral reefs
|Community E Fish Resources
|Community H Fish Resources
|The shrimp at Svalbard are considered part of the larger Barents Sea / Svalbard population, and are managed as one stock, because there are no genetic differences between these two regions (Bjordal et al 2004).
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale
|The southern right whale is 1 of 3 species of large, baleen whales classified as right whales and belonging to the genus Eubalaena. They are closely related to the northern hemisphere right whales but the species are reproductively isolated from one another by the geographic separation of calving grounds and asynchronous breeding seasons (Townsend 1935). Australian southern right whale populations have different mtDNA haplotype frequencies from other southern hemisphere populations although nuclear DNA structuring is low (Baker et al. 1999; Carroll et al. 2011; Patenaude et al. 2007). Southern right whales in Australian waters comprise two populations, one in the south-west and one in the south-east, both of which are genetically differentiated (based on mtDNA haplotype frequencies) (Carroll et al. 2011). The Australian population is estimated at 3500 individuals with 2900 of those occurring in the south-west region between Cape Leeuwin and Ceduna during breeding season (Bannister et al. 2011), and make up about 83% of the total estimated Australian southern right whale population.
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna
|A single spawning area, morphological uniformity, distribution of larvae and tag return data suggest that SBT area a single population (Caton 1991; Grewe et al. 1997; Farley and Davis 1998; Patterson et al. 2008) High vagility in relation to the geographical distribution also indicates limited potential for population differentiation (Caton1994).
|GBR Green Turtle
|There are two genetically distinct stocks (Northern and Southern) of Green Turtle in the GBR (GBRMPA 2014).
|Cenderwasih green turtle
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion
|Cenderwasih target fish
|Multiple reef fish species
|California market squid (Loligo opalescens)
|One population from Mexico to Alaska that spawns throughout the year (new cohort added almost monthly) (FMP 2005).
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.