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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionIs this actor's use of this commons encouraged or discouraged with a tax or subsidy?
Select OptionsTax, Subsidy, Both, Neither
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceTaxes and subsidies are important ways of altering human behavior by changing the costs and benefits that accompany various actions.
Definition

"Incentive-based institutions do not require, permit or forbid certain behaviors, but they change the incentives that actors face when deciding how much, and/or how, they will use a commons. Taxes impose costs on the use of a commons, and are designed to discourage the taxed behaviors. Subsidies provide additional monetary benefits based on use levels, and are designed to encourage the subsidized behaviors."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaSubsidyIn the 1970s, there were subsidies for exports. Later, in the 1980s, large subsidies were put in place for the construction of plywood mills and other value added activities. Both of these subsidies encouraged increased investment in forest clearing.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesNeitherThere were neither taxes nor subsidies for these commons users use of the commons.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursNeither? no evidence of a tax or subsidy.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in IndonesiaNeitherdoesn't use
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaSubsidysubsidies for palm oil production have served to increase the size of this industry. (do we have references for this?)
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HNeither
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNeither
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNeitherNeither taxes nor subsidies directly affected ODS production.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firms 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNeither
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNeither
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNeither
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DNeither
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesNeithernone that I am aware of.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNeither
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNeither
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNeither
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersSubsidyAlthough the toothfish fishery is not directly subsidized, Australia provides a number of subsidies to the fishing industry, including for the cost of fuel.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenNeitherNo tax or subsidy known, however use of this commons is discouraged through the promotion of alternative livelihoods in the tourism and value-added seafood businesses
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNeither
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorTaxAll tourists pay an entry fee (currently US$100 for foreigners). Tour operators pay for a permit. http://www.galapagospark.org/nophprg.php?page=programas_turismo_tributo
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNeither
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNeitherHeightened enforcement (Clifton 2013)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNeither
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BNeither
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CNeither
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ANeither
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersSubsidyThere is a tax and royalties (both high) from the Falkland Islands Government, but this is not used to discourage fishing or does it discourage fishing. Spanish government provides subsidies in form of fuel and construction. No subsidies for Joint Ventures.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNeither
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersNeither
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNeither
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersSubsidyAlthough the SBT fishery is not directly subsidized, Australia provides a number of subsidies to the fishing industry, including for the cost of fuel.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenNeither
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersSubsidyThe Australian government does grant subsidies to the fishing industry, including the cost of fuel (see. E.g., Sumaila et al. 2008).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersSubsidyAustralia does provide some subsidies to fishing fleets including fuel subsidies and fisher assistance that migth affect the level of exploitation of fish
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers Pigs were introduced by NGOs as an alternative communal meat source to replace the use of turtles
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNeither
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ENeither
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FNeither
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNeither
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNeither
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GNeither
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNeither
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersTaxNo subsidies. Tax on quota allocated. Doesn't really discourage fishing though.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenTaxTax: Landing taxes, but not a large discouragement. No subsidy.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNeither
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismTaxSince 2007 all visitors traveling in Raja Ampat have to pay an entrance fee. The entrance fee for 2015 foreign visitors is Rp 1.000.000/person/calendar year (approximately US$100) for which they will receive a waterproof plastic entrance tag featuring a photo from Raja Ampat.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersSubsidyAU fishers are subsidized (e.g., fuel subsidies) would might encourage fishing and therefore encourage the risk of seabird interaction (see Sumaila et al. 2008).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable