|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Question||In practice, what is the main management goal of the MPA?|
|Select Options||Biodiversity conservation, Fisheries improvement, Species of conservation concern, Protection of migratory species, Exclusion of a specific threat, Social goals, Other|
|Importance||On paper MPAs have multiple goals, but in practice there tends to be one goal that receives more management attention.|
A goal is a statement of what the MPA is ultimately trying to achieve. Although multiple goals may be formally stated (e.g. in the management plan), in terms of day-to-day management of the MPA, which goal receives the most attention/is the main focus of management?
|Sectors||Marine protected areas|
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999||["Biodiversity conservation"]|
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current||["Biodiversity conservation"]|
|Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica||["", "Fisheries improvement", "Social goals"]||Community empowerment and inclusion in fisheries management, stabilize fish stocks. Development of alternative livelihoods such as aquaculture and tourism beyond fishing.|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||["Biodiversity conservation", "Other"]||Reflects influence and agenda of conservation-focused NGOs (TNC/WWF). Also a large focus is economic development (through tourism) - focus of Wakatobi District Government, which reflects the need for local administrations to achieve greater financial self-sufficiency in the current era of decentralised government within Indonesia (Clifton 2013)|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||["Biodiversity conservation", "Species of conservation concern", "Protection of migratory species", "Exclusion of a specific threat", "Social goals"]|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||["Biodiversity conservation", "Social goals"]||Main aim of MPAs was to support local food security and traditional rights|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||["Biodiversity conservation", "Exclusion of a specific threat"]||Exclude oil drilling, protect critical ecosystems|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||[""]||The Reserves are designed to protect a large, continuous, and mainly undisturbed wilderness area with intact biotypes, ecosystems, and species (Sysselmannen på Svalbard 2013b ). They also aim to protect nesting sites for seabirds, walrus haul-outs, and polar bear habitat.|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||["Biodiversity conservation", "Fisheries improvement", "Social goals"]||MPA objectives include: 1) Preservation, recovery and long- term maintenance of species, biodiversity, ecosystems, and other natural values including special habitats; 2) Promotion of sound management practices to ensure long-term sustainable use of coastal and marine resources; 3) Equitable distribution of economic and social benefits to enhance local development; 4) Protection of the rights pertaining to historical use; and 5) Education to promote stewardship and community involvement in planning and management (Howard et al. 2005).|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||["Biodiversity conservation"]||The park was also created to ensure the sustainable use of natural resources by local residents - and this is more of a focus in the 2nd management plan|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||["Biodiversity conservation"]||Biodiversity conservation is the main goal of this management plan; although it does include consideration of threat reduction and protection of migratory species.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||["Species of conservation concern", "Protection of migratory species"]||The MMPZ of the GABMP (CW) was implemented to protect important calving grounds of the Endangered southern right whale along with the Australian sea lion, which is listed as Vulnerable. In this zone vessel traffic is prohibited during southern right whale calving, from May 1 - October 31. Recreatioinal activities and commercial fishing is permitted in this zone during the remainder of the year but demersal trawling and mining activities (including exploration activities) are not. The BPZ of the GABMP (CW) was implemented to protect a sample of the unique benthic flora and fauna and sediments that are found in the GAB region. Even though this is an aim of the management plan, mining activities (including exploration activities) are permitted in this zone. The management plan for the GABMP (CW) indicates that activities in this zone will be considered on a case by case basis and stringent conditions will be imposed, by which companies must demonstrate that their activities will not compromise or threaten the conservation values being protected in the GABMP (CW). Currently there are 5 exploration acreages located around or in the BPZ of the GABMP (CW) and drilling of exploration wells is planned to start in 2017. This may impact the biodiversity of the benthic flora and fauna and acoustic disturbance generated from seismic exploration may impact cetaceans in the GABMP (CW).|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||["Biodiversity conservation"]||The MPA proposal (2005) defines the main purposes of the MPA to: 1) protect conservation values of Heard Island and McDonald Islands, the territorial sea and the adjacent Exclusive Economic Zone (HIMI EEZ) including: the World Heritage and cultural values of the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands; the unique features of the benthic and pelagic environments; representative portions of the different marine habitat types; and marine areas used by land-based marine predators for local foraging activities. 2) provide an effective conservation framework which will contribute to the integrated and ecologically sustainable management of the HIMI region as a whole; 3) provide a scientific reference area for the study of ecosystem function within the HIMI region; and 4) add representative examples of the HIMI EEZ to the National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas.|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||Not Applicable|
|Cenderwasih governance system||||NP Mission: •Strengthen the management of the region to ensure the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems •Strengthen protection, law enforcement and rehabilitation efforts preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem resources •Develop optimal utilization for the development of education, research, science, nature tourism and farming to support sustainable use for the improvement of the welfare of the community around the area. •Develop institutional systems and conservation partnerships in the management|
|Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil||["", "Biodiversity conservation", "Fisheries improvement", "Social goals"]|
|Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA diving||["", "Biodiversity conservation", "Social goals"]|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.