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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeKnowledge and uncertainty (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionWhat is the level of scientific knowledge this actor group has regarding the condition of this environmental commons?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceKnowledge of resource conditions is widely believed to be a requirement for sustainable management - i.e. if you don't know how the resources are doing, you cannot change management practices in response to changing resource conditions. Many presume that this knowledge must be based on systematic scientific monitoring (although others argue that local or traditional knowledge may also be important).
Definition

Scientific knowledge refers to systematized knowledge based on systematic inquiry. Generally, scientific knowledge refers to knowledge available in peer-reviewed publications or other highly reputable sources (e.g. such as some government reports), produced by scientists with formal training.

High: the condition of the resource is understood with a high degree of confidence by this actor group based on scientific information.

Low: This actor group has little or no scientific information about the resource (e.g., no or very few studies have been done to ascertain the condition of the resource).

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Social memory and general resilienceMedium or High
Conditions for general resilienceMedium or High
Uncertainty and depletion of natural resourcesLow
Numeric managementHigh
Individual transferable quotas (ITQs)High

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Raymond, Christopher M., Ioan Fazey, Mark S. Reed, Lindsay C. Stringer, Guy M. Robinson, and Anna C. Evely. 2010. “Integrating Local and Scientific Knowledge for Environmental Management.” Journal of Environmental Management 91, no. 8: 1766–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.03.023.


Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesLow (1)This group does not have scientific knowledge
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaLow (1)This actor group does not seem to have pursued scientific knowledge of the commons.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)Low (1)There was little scientific knowledge of the system in this period.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesLow (1)This group is not generally engaged with science.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaLow (1)This group does not possess very much scientific knowledge about this resource.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in IndonesiaMedium (2)This group has some scientific knowledge of the resource, but in general scientific knowledge of this resource is limited.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)Medium (2)There is a modest amount of scientific knowledge about this system.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursLow (1)this group is not engaged with science.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District GovernmentsLow (1)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Medium (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Medium (2)Scientific knowledge is highly contested.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States High (3)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersHigh (3)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)Likely low scientific knowledge, most poor and have recently migrated to the Galapagos.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)high scientific knowledge because of involvement of scientific organisations - NOAA, USFWS
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersHigh (3)Input from Charles Dariwn Foundation (scientific research NGO) - part of PMB until 2008 and then involved through advisory role.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersHigh (3)Input from Charles Dariwn Foundation (scientific research NGO) - part of PMB until 2008 and then involved through advisory role.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Researchers are held to high standards and research is peer-reviewed.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Low formal education so coded as low. But significant training from International NGOs and also some involved in monitoring
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)Scientific NGOs included as management actor so assuming they share knowledge high scientific knowledge among the management actor group
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismLow (1)In terms of the population status of polar bears, this group has low level of scientific knowledge (but overall the level of scientific knowledge is low-moderate). In terms of the behaviour of individual bears, tourism operators have a high degree of knowledge about what signs to look for to gauge a bear’s behaviour (aggressive, curious, complacent, etc).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationHigh (3)Scientific research NGO - has contributed most of the scientific knowledge on the GMR
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersMedium (2)Most fishermen have reasonably knowledge about the biology of shrimp and other fish. Since they are effectively conducting surveys every time they trawl, they are likely to have a reasonable scientific knowledge of the status of the shrimp population.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)There is limited information on light mantled albatross, globally, and even less known about the population at HIMI.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionMedium (2)This would be ranked as low to medium. Low based on the lack of recent data (from the last decade) on the status of the King Penguin population at HIMI. But medium based on historic knowledge and trends.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMedium (2)The AFMA has access to the best available knowledge on HIMI toothfish, however significant gaps remain in the knowledge of HIMI toothfish life history, population dynamics, etc.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks High (3)This actor group would have access to available scientific knowledge, including from research institutes (CSIRO), but would also be limited by the current state of knowledge on Australian sea lions
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMedium (2)Some members of this actor group participate in environmental monitoring and have access to scientific data.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAMedium (2)They do resource surveys/monitoring from time to time
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)Generally low formal education
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersHigh (3)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Medium (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersMedium (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersMedium (2)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone SecretariatHigh (3)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersMedium (2)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenMedium (2)Many fishermen point to scientific findings, and have an understanding of the science behind regulation decisions. The fishermen's association uses science in their publications as well. Some fishermen perceive stocks to be much better than scientific surveys indicate.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsHigh (3)The monitoring system was one of the main achievements of the early ICPR
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersHigh (3)Many managers are highly educated, and the management agencies have partnerships with universities to better understand the condition of coral reefs
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersHigh (3)Many managers are highly educated, and the management agencies have partnerships with universities to better understand the condition of coral reefs
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)Scientific knowledge is widely available and the actor group is relatively well-informed.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersLow (1)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Researchers are held to high standards and research is peer-reviewed.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Low (1)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)Scientific knowledge is generally good; but uncertainties remain.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersHigh (3)High levels of scientific knowledge developed through monitoring and research (particularly through NGO involvement) - e.g. knowledge of species growth rates and morphology; coral cover; recruitment; sediment impacts etc
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersMedium (2)Good knowledge of where and when they nest, but less scientific knowledge of the migratory routes of turtles outside of the wakatobi MPA
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersHigh (3)High levels of scientific knowledge developed through monitoring and research (involvement of NGOs)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersHigh (3)High scientific representation on the board through CDF
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMedium (2)The AFMA has fairly strong knowledge about the population dynamics of toothfish resources, although important gaps remain.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorMedium (2)As all tours need to involve a naturalist guide, assume some scientific knowledge within the group.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)The Bajau generally have low levels of formal educational achievement (Chou 1997)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAHigh (3)The Sanctuary uses the best available science and takes part in collaborative peer-reviewed research on the humpback whale.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)The Bajau generally have low levels of formal educational achievement (Chou 1997)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)The Bajau generally have low levels of formal educational achievement (Chou 1997)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorMedium (2)Through their accumulated knowledge of working in the area and involvement of CDF researching sharks they likely have some scientific knowledge and many may be educated naturalists/guides. Dive guides knowledge used to assess perceptions of shark abundance/populations
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)Trusteeship includes scientific organisations, e.g. NOAA
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersMedium (2)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)Includes scientific organisations, e.g. NOAA
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAHigh (3)The Sanctuary is expected to incorporate the best available science.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersMedium (2)Whale watching boats and kayak companies include educational aspects to use. The Sanctuary provides scientific information to recreational users. However, not all user may know about or use such information.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)Scientific NGOs included as management actor so assuming they share knowledge high scientific knowledge among the management actor group
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Generally low formal education so coded as Low, although International NGOs have conducted (and continue) extensive education campaigns in the area.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismMedium (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersMedium (2)Significant training from International NGOs and also involved in monitoring so assume some level of scientific understanding
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)Scientific NGOs coded as part of the management actor - assume they share their knowledge
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesHigh (3)Managers are required to use the best available science in their activities. Scientists at NMFS and CDFW frequently advise the management bodies and conduct research surveys for management purposes.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityLow (1)AFMA as a participant in various fisheries organizations has invested in the study of seabird bycatch mitigation measures. However, they do not explicitly study the conditions of light mantled albatross themselves.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersMedium (2)Light-mantled albatross have been studied on Macquarie Island and other areas to get a sense of population trends and life history characteristics. Although there are a number of important gaps; groups have some scientific knowledge of the major threats to the species.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMedium (2)Some members of this actor group participate in environmental monitoring and have access to scientific data
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersMedium (2)The group has moderate level of scientific knowledge about the polar bear population status and trends (detailed knowledge simply does not exist). However, the managers are informed on proxies such as cub production, body mass, den distribution, etc.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersHigh (3)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)Basic scientific knowledge on southern right whales is provided to commercial fishers upon approval of their fishing permit. Migratory patterns and impacts of environmental changes on southern right whales are less understood and this type of information is not provided to fishers with their permit.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersHigh (3)This group conducts their own research and monitoring of the shrimp stocks each year. Supplementing these observations with records from fishing boats about the hours & locations trawled provide good scientific information.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersHigh (3)Population estimates, range extent and breeding patterns are well studied. As are linkages to prey depletion
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks High (3)This actor group would have access to available scientific knowledge, including from research institutes (CSIRO), but would also be limited by the current state of knowledge on southern right whales.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Access to available scientific knowledge on SBT through Convention for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna, which conducts stock assessments. But there remain many gaps in the understanding of their spawning frequency and length, movement and congregation, spatial dynamics and their ecological role.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks High (3)Many managers are highly educated, and the management agencies have partnerships with research institutes. Although, much is still unknown about the SBT: spawning frequency and length, movement and congregation, spatial dynamics and their ecological role.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAMedium (2)They do resource surveys/monitoring from time to time
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationHigh (3)CDF is an international scientific organization http://www.darwinfoundation.org/en/about-us/
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersHigh (3)This group is informed with the latest science of measurements about proxies of the population status (number of nesting females, number of eggs, hatchling success, etc).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersHigh (3)This group is likely well informed with the latest science of measurements about proxies of the population status (number of nesting females, number of eggs, hatchling success, etc).
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionMedium (2)This would be ranked as low to medium. Low based on the lack of recent data (from the last decade) on the status of the light-mantled sooty albatross population at HIMI. But medium based on historic knowledge and trends.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityLow (1)AFMA has access to the knowledge that is available about light-mantled albatross, but in general, knowledge about their population status and trends is not well known and is outdated in many locations. AFMA does have thorough information on seabird interactions via working with the industry and other organizations (e.g., CCAMLR, Tuna commissions, etc.).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationHigh (3)Scientific research NGO - has contributed most of the scientific knowledge on the GMR
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI ResearchersHigh (3)Scientists
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)Fishers have scientific knowledge about toothfish, but there remain many gaps in the understanding of their life history, distribution and population dynamics.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)There is limited knowledge on Australian sea lions and it does not appear this is a priorty species communicated to commerical fishers
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismMedium (2)Population estimates, range extent and breeding patterns are well studied. As are linkages to prey depletion. It is likley that tourism operators have good knowledge of birds as these are popular viewing species and information will be passed on by the Govenor and through the AECO.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHigh (3)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersHigh (3)Understanding of species and endemicity improved by expeditions by NGOs, records of reef locations and compositions fairly well documented, but changes over tiem not always reported (at least online).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersMedium (2)Understanding of species and endemicity improved by expeditions by NGOs, but data on compositions, dynamics and changes over time does not appear to be available (at least online).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)Generally low formal education
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersHigh (3)Management is strongly informed by science, managers include peer-reviewed scientists
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersHigh (3)Fishermen work closely with observers and report conditions. Fishing association websites show clear indication in support of best available science.
Pond aquaculture on Lombok, IndonesiaGovernanceLombok aquaculture farmers 
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceGili EcoTrust on Gili TrawanganHigh (3)
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernanceIsla Caballo AMPR Costa RicaLow (1)
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernancePalito-Montero AMPR Costa RicaLow (1)
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernancePaquera-Tambor AMPR Costa RicaMedium (2)
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceGili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)Medium (2)
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersLow (1)Biology of squid less known. Make a lot of assumptions. More scientific knowledge about interactions.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery ManagersLow (1)Don't know much about the biological aspect. Know much more about sea lion interaction. Don't know spawning sites, don't know if catching before spawning. A lot of assumptions. Know are two species and general characteristics of species and what depths mostly found at.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersHigh (3)Many managers are Masters of Science or Ph.D.s. Heavily studied fishery after the 1980s boom.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenHigh (3)Many are well connected with scientists and reports. While some unknowns exist (where juveniles go), fishers well acquainted with current scientific knowledge.
Pond aquaculture on Lombok, IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Institute of Sciences - LIPIMedium (2)
Pond aquaculture on Lombok, IndonesiaGovernanceLombok aquaculture farmersLow (1)Very low to none.
Caete-Teperacu Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Braganca, BrazilGovernanceAssociation of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in BrazilLow (1)
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceSCUBA diving businesses on Gili TrawanganHigh (3)
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceGili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)High (3)