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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeOutcomes (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionWhat is the current level of collective action within the members of this actor group with respect to the use or management of this commons?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceCollective action is an important dependent variable in many traditional common-pool resource analyses. It in turn is seen as a centrally determining factor in whether or not a user group is capable of sustainably using a commons.
Definition

Marshall (1998) has defined collective action as "the action taken by a group (either directly or on its behalf through an organization) in pursuit of members’ perceived shared interests."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Conditions for general resilienceMedium or High
Collective action and the commonsHigh
Cultural heterogeneity and collective actionLow
Communication and collective actionHigh
Transaction costs and collective actionHigh
Conflict resolution and collective actionHigh
Commons boundaries and collective actionHigh
Proportionality and collective-actionHigh
User group boundariesHigh
Interest heterogeneity and collective actionLow
Economic heterogeneity and collective actionHigh
Group size and collective actionHigh
Crowding out from external sanctioningLow
Past collaboration and social capitalHigh
Accountable leadershipHigh
Natural resource dependenceHigh

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)Communities work together to manage natural resources, including traditional management practices
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities 
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersLow (1)Limited collective action over this snapshot.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)Mostly focused on realising private goods. Some participation in Guardian Reef Fishers to promote reef stewardship.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2) Mostly focused on realising private goods. Some participation in Guardian Reef Fishers to promote reef stewardship.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersLow (1)Little collective action is necessary throughout the early part of this time period. Later on industrial producers tended to take individual actions to lobby their respective governments.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)The current level will be low because the fishery is now closed. It would have been high at the start of the time period because fishers self-organised cooperatives, holding formal and informal meetings to enure they got the fishery outcomes they wanted - including through strikes and causing high profile conflicts. Collective action was focussed on rights to fish rather than conservation or sustainability.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)Involved in local management and following of traditional natural resource management
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersLow (1)All fishers follow regulations, but there does not appear to be any collective action towards the managementof the commons
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismHigh (3)AECO membership
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersHigh (3)Australian Southern Bluefin Tuna Industry Association: http://www.asbtia.com.au/
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersHigh (3)Fishers follow guidelines for southern right whale and are part of collective action via the Australian Southern Bluefin Tuna Industry Association: http://www.asbtia.com.au/
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersHigh (3)The Bajau are a highly cohesive group and will work together to exploit the commons - but not manage it as conservation/management of resources is not part of their cultural norms
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersLow (1)Little collective action is needed
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Little collective action is necessary
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)Collective Action is high between legal toothfish fishers based on their capacity to come together (with governments, NGOs, the industry, international bodies, and others) to combat and dramatically reduce illegal fishing (see e.g., Osterblom et al. 2015, Osterblom and Sumaila 2011, Osterblom and Bodin 2012).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenMedium (2)Risk pool groups are a form of collective action where individual fishermen pool their quotas to ensure they individually do not go over the fishery allotment and close it or are sanctioned for doing so. However, this is not the entire groundfish fishery.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)Group has self-organized with other toothfish fishers to prevent harvests by illegal operators and achieve MSC certification of some fisheries.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorHigh (3)Tourism is generally considered to be well managed. Also the International Galapagos Tour Operators Association aims to ensure tourism is a positive force in the Galapagos: http://www.igtoa.org/igtoa_in_action
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersHigh (3)The Bajau are a highly cohesive group and will work together to exploit the commons - but not manage it as conservation/management of resources is not part of their cultural norms
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersHigh (3)They seemed to be united during the creation of the MPA.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Little collective action is necessary
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersHigh (3)The Bajau are a highly cohesive group and will work together to exploit the commons - but not manage it as conservation/management of resources is not part of their cultural norms
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersMedium (2)Based on Melanesian society there is likely to be local collective action for resource management, but this is not part of the formal management of the MPA
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)Group has organized alongside other toothfish operators to form the coalition of legal toothfish operators.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismHigh (3)Members of AECO follow strict guidelines above and beyond international and national laws in accordance with AECO objectives http://www.aeco.no/membership/
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersMedium (2)Based on Melanesian society there is likely to be local collective action for resource management, but this is not part of the formal management of the MPA
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersHigh (3)Very high. DWG decides rules and enforces them, even if there is no legal aspect to these industry created rules. Long history of industry working together to get in front of issues and manage issues (e.g. sea lion incidental catch) themselves.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenHigh (3)Fishers coordinate frequently, most power through CWPA.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)Most recreational fishers are not part of representative organisations
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersMedium (2)FIFCA helps bring interests to be heard. Work together to bring common interests to managers.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)The HIMI toothfish fishers have self-organized with other toothfish fishers to prevent harvests by illegal operators (e.g., COLTO) and to achieve MSC certification. Both of these actions have potentially helped albatross through reduced IUU (and theoretically resulting in reduced seabird catch) and through the MSC guidelines, which require that vessels minimize and eliminate seabird interactions.