|Variable Component Type||Pollutant, Natural Resource Unit|
|Theme||Biophysical (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||What is the size of this commons?|
|Select Options||1 Microscopic, 2 Small, 3 Medium, 4 Large|
|Importance||The visibility of natural resources aids management by providing visible insights concerning the status of a stock, and the potential effects of new patterns of use or other disturbances. Also, the scale of a resource or pollutant unit has implications for sustainability due to the technological and biological differences. Larger natural resource units also tend to have lower reproductive rates.|
The physical dimensions of a resource or pollutant unit at its maximum extent.
Microscopic: invisible to the naked eye (e.g. most pollutants)
Small: Visible, but much smaller than an average person (e.g. a mollusk, small rodent)
Medium: Slightly small than an average person (turtles, large predatory birds)
Large: Somewhat larger to much larger than an average person (e.g. sharks, whales, elephants, most trees)
Ostrom, Elinor. 2007. “A Diagnostic Approach for Going beyond Panaceas.” PNAS 104, no. 39: 15181–15187.
|Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Medium (3)||Adult bluefin tuna weigh up to 900 kg, although the average adult weighs in at around 250kg and is 2.5m in length.|
|Galapagos Sea Cucumber||Small (2)||Adults 20-30cm, with suggested lifespan of 12-17 years.|
|Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Medium (3)||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin can weigh up to 900 kg, although mature adults typically weigh 250kg with a length of approximately 2.5m.|
|Ozone||Microscopic (1)||Ozone is effectively invisible.|
|Ozone Depleting Substances||Microscopic (1)|
|Rhine Point source pollutants||Microscopic (1)|
|Rhine Non-point source pollutants||Microscopic (1)|
|GBR target fish|
|GBR target fish||Small (2)||0.1m|
|Patagonian Toothfish||Medium (3)||Toothfish can reach a weights greater than 200 kg and lengths over 2.3 meters (see e.g., Collins et al. 2010). The size of captured fish are, however, somewhat smaller and are generally gear-dependent. Trawl fishers tend to capture younger smaller fish (around 1 meter in length); while longline operators capture older larger fish (< one meter in length).|
|NWHI Lobster Fishery||Small (2)|
|Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||Small (2)|
|Light Mantled Albatross||Small (2)||Wingspan can be over 2 meters; and they typically weigh between 2.5 and 4 kilograms.|
|Wakatobi coral cover||Large (4)||The reefs as a whole are large (not the coral polyps themselves)|
|Wakatobi Green Turtle||Medium (3)||Average weight of adult individual 68-190Kg|
|Wakatobi fish spawning||Small (2)||Lutjanus bohar - common length = 76cm Epinephelus fuscoguttatus - common length = 50cm Plectropomus areolatus - max length 80cm (data from FishBase)|
|Galapagos Green Turtle||Medium (3)||Av weight of adult individual 68-190Kg|
|Raja Ampat Reef Fish||Small (2)||On average reef fish are comparatively small|
|Raja Ampat Coral Cover||Large (4)||The reefs as a whole are large (not the coral polyps themselves)|
|Galapagos Sharks||Large (4)|
|Raja Ampat Green Turtle||Medium (3)||Average weight of adult individual 68-190Kg|
|NWHI Green Turtle||Medium (3)||Average weight of adult individual 68-190Kg|
|California Humpback Whale||Large (4)||Fully grown, the males average 13–14 meters (43–46 feet) long. Females are slightly 1 to 1.5 m longer than males (Chittleborough 1965). Body mass is typically between 25–30 metric tons (28–33 short tons), with larger whales weighing more than 40 metric tons (Burnie and Wilson 2005).|
|Community D Fish Resources||Small (2)|
|Community A Fish Resources||Small (2)|
|Community C Fish Resources||Small (2)|
|Community B Fish Resources||Small (2)|
|Svalbard Polar Bear||Large (4)||Adult polar bears are typically 400-700kg and 2-3m long.|
|Seaflower coral reefs||Large (4)||Individual coral colonies can be 4 meters high/wide.|
|Seaflower groupers||Medium (3)||Individual groupers can grow to 1-2 meters.|
|Svalbard Beluga||Large (4)||Belugas are 4-6m long and in the range of 1100-1500kg.|
|Community G Fish Resources||Small (2)|
|Community E Fish Resources||Small (2)|
|Community F Fish Resources||Small (2)|
|Community H Fish Resources||Small (2)|
|Svalbard Shrimp||Small (2)|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||Large (4)||Southern right whales can reach a maximum length of 17.5 meters and weigh up to 80 tonnes. Females are generally 1 - 2 meters larger than males.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||Medium (3)||SBT can reach 2.25m fork length and weigh >200 kg, although they more commonly reach 1.80m fork length and 100kg (Yearsely et al. 1999; BRS 2008).|
|King Penguin||Medium (3)||The king penguin is the second largest species of penguins, growing up to about three feet in height and 35 lbs in weight (Bost et al. 2013).|
|GBR Green Turtle||Medium (3)||On average, adult Green Turtles are generally in the range of 105cm long, and often weigh around 130 kg.|
|Cenderwasih green turtle||Medium (3)||Average weight of adult individual 68-190Kg|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||Medium (3)||Males can become very large, 185–225 cm in length and weighing 180–250 kg. Females are smaller, 130–185 cm at in length and weighing 65–100 kg.|
|Svalbard Kittiwake||Small (2)||The adult is 37–41 cm in length with a wingspan of 91–105 cm and a body mass of 305–525g|
|Cenderwasih target fish||Small (2)||On average reef fish are comparatively small|
|Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||Small (2)||Max. mantle length is 13-17 cm (Arkhipkin et al. 2013a)|
|Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||Small (2)||Max 42 cm mantle length and 1400 g (Smith et al. 1987)|
|California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||Small (2)||Average mantle length is 152 mm at the time of spawning.|
|New Zealand Sea Lion|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.