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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionDoes this actor group explicitly manage for the following types of ecosystem services?
Select OptionsProvisioning, Cultural, Regulation
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceEcosystem services are a lens through which human benefits from ecosystems can be considered (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Daily et al. 2000). Some actor groups are explicitly managing for different kinds of ecosystem services.
Definition

Explicit management involves recognizing the ecosystem service(s), and developing management or other plans for ensuring their long-term sustainability. For example, payments for ecosystem services (e.g., water regulation) would be an explicit management of an ecosystem service.

Provisioning services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as "products obtained from ecosystems, including: Food and fiber. This includes the vast range of food products derived from plants, animals, and microbes, as well as materials such as wood, jute, hemp, silk, and many other products derived from ecosystems. Fuel. Wood, dung, and other biological materials serve as sources of energy. Genetic resources. This includes the genes and genetic information used for animal and plant breeding and biotechnology. Biochemicals, natural medicines, and pharmaceuticals. Many medicines, biocides, food additives such as alginates, and biological materials are derived from ecosystems. Ornamental resources. Animal products, such as skins and shells, an flowers are used as ornaments, although the value of these resources is often culturally determined. This is an example of linkages between the categories of ecosystem services. Fresh water. Fresh water is another example of linkages between categories in this case, between provisioning and regulating services."

Regulating services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as "the benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes, including (1) Air quality maintenance. Ecosystems both contribute chemicals to and extract chemicals from the atmosphere, influencing many aspects of air quality. Climate regulation. Ecosystems influence climate both locally and globally. For example, at a local scale, changes in land cover can affect both temperature and precipitation. At the global scale, ecosystems play an important role in climate by either sequestering or emitting greenhouse gases. (2) Water regulation. The timing and magnitude of runoff, flooding, and aquifer recharge can be strongly influenced by changes in land cover, including, in particular, alterations that change the water storage potential of the system, such as the conversion of wetlands or the replacement of forests with croplands or croplands with urban areas. (3) Erosion control. Vegetative cover plays an important role in soil retention and the prevention of landslides. (4) Water purification and waste treatment. Ecosystems can be a source of impurities in fresh water but also can help to filter out and decompose organic wastes introduced into inland waters and coastal and marine ecosystems. (5) Regulation of human diseases. Changes in ecosystems can directly change the abundance of human pathogens, such as cholera, and can alter the abundance of disease vectors, such as mosquitoes. (6) Biological control. Ecosystem changes affect the prevalence of crop and livestock pests and diseases. Pollination. Ecosystem changes affect the distribution, abundance, and effectiveness of pollinators. (7) Storm protection. The presence of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs can dramatically reduce the damage caused by hurricanes or large waves."

Cultural services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as "the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences, including: (1) Cultural diversity. The diversity of ecosystems is one factor influencing the diversity of cultures. (2) Spiritual and religious values. Many religions attach spiritual and religious values to ecosystems or their components. (30 Knowledge systems (traditional and formal). Ecosystems influence the types of knowledge systems developed by different cultures. Educational values. Ecosystems and their components and processes provide the basis for both formal and informal education in many societies. (4) Inspiration. Ecosystems provide a rich source of inspiration for art, folklore, national symbols, architecture, and advertising. (5) Aesthetic values. Many people find beauty or aesthetic value in various aspects of ecosystems, as reflected in the support for parks, scenic drives, and the selection of housing locations. (6) Social relations. Ecosystems influence the types of social relations that are established in particular cultures. Fishing societies, for example, differ in many respects in their social relations from nomadic herding or agricultural societies. (7) Sense of place. Many people value the sense of place that is associated with recognized features of their environment, including aspects of the ecosystem.  (8) Cultural heritage values. Many societies place high value on the maintenance of either historically important landscapes (cultural landscapes) or culturally significant species. (9) Recreation and ecotourism. People often choose where to spend their leisure time based in part on the characteristics of the natural or cultivated landscapes in a particular area."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish Fishermen[]No, this actor group does not manage the resource
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers No
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers[]No
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersProvisioning
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers[]No
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan Fishermen["Provisioning"]Fishermen were focssed on maintaining the fishery (through their involvement on PMB)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational Users[]No, this actor does not manage the resource
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector["Cultural"]Tourism in the Galapagos in dependent on a healthy marine environment so tourist operators have an incentive to follow regulations, and see International Galapagos Tour Operators Association: http://www.igtoa.org/igtoa_in_action
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Provisioning", "Cultural"]Provisioning and cultural through traditional (sasi) management
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers["Provisioning"]Through compliance to fisheries regulations; but don't manage it directly.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers["Provisioning", "Cultural", "Regulation"]Not directly. But they are somewhat involved through stewardship and compliance to fisheries regulations
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism["Cultural"]Providing opportunities for tourists about the aesthetic appreciation of polar bears is key for tourism operators.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers[]No, researchers do not manage the resource
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism[""]Tourism operators seek to providing opportunities for the aesthetic appreciation of wildlife where they can.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers["Cultural"]Based on Papuan culture there is likely cultural services are maintained through active sea tenure
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers["Provisioning", "Cultural"]Based on Papuan culture there is likely cultural services are maintained through active sea tenure, and likely some provisional services managament through temporary closures for cultural events.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Provisioning"]Through compliance to fisheries regulations.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermen[""]Cultural: Contribute to fishing festivals. Provisioning: manage for market.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers[""]Provisioning: Trawlers process and sell squid
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid Trawlers[""]Provisioning: fishermen are focused on maintaining and enhancing the seafood industry
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Provisioning"]Fisheries production
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers[]This actor group does not manage for any ecosystem services.