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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow much environmental monitoring of this commons does this actor group engage in?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Moderate, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceMonitoring is one of the fundamental design principles for long-enduring institutional arrangements in the governance of common-pool resources. Without effective monitoring, the chance for successful governance of natural resources and their sustainable use is severely limited.
Definition

"The purpose of this question is to address the fundamental question of whether the actor monitors the conditions of this commons. This is different from monitoring the behaviors of certain commons users towards the commons. Rather, it involves monitoring the conditions of the commons itself, which may result in part from such behaviors. High monitoring: This actor group engages in frequent and systematic monitoring efforts that are sufficient to adequately observe changes in commons conditions. Low: This actor group engages in very little to no monitoring of the conditions of this commons. Consequently, it cannot detect changes in commons conditions."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Conditions for general resilienceModerate or High
CBNRM design principlesHigh

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaLow (1)This group does not engage in environmental monitoring
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursLow (1)None.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaLow (1)This group does not appear to have engaged in any kind of systematic monitoring.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities Do we have data about this?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)Low (1)There was little if any systematic monitoring of forests during this period.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesModerate (2)Although we have little evidence, we presume that members of this group continue to be aware of local conditions around their villages.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)Moderate (2)This group has engaged in an increasing amount of environmental monitoring, including some improvements in satellite remote sensing.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAHigh (3)It conducts biological monitoring for this commons
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in IndonesiaModerate (2)This group is primarily engaged in monitoring, but its capacity is limited
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District GovernmentsLow (1)I'm not aware of any evidence that this group engages in environmental monitoring
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Moderate (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersModerate (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersModerate (2)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersModerate (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Moderate (2)ICCAT is responsible for analyzing resource conditions using data collected by other parties, as well as analyzing scientific reports. In some countries environmental monitoring is strong, while in others it is weak.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone SecretariatHigh (3)The Ozone Secretariat monitors implementation of the Montreal Protocol.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsLow (1)Not directly involved in the monitoring carried by the ICPR
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers None. No official monitoring by recreational fishers
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersModerate (2)Monitor within zones, including coral cover (linked to AIMS long-term monitoring program)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States High (3)Monitoring varies by country, but in general given the vast majority of production which takes place in the developed world is well monitored by national-level environmental agencies.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersModerate (2)Monitor within zones, including coral cover (linked to AIMS long-term monitoring program)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersModerate (2)This group is obligated to keep daily fish catch log books but they do not participate directly in ecological monitoring.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)None. No official monitoring by recreational fishers
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Moderate (2)ICCAT is responsible for analyzing resource conditions using data collected by other parties, as well as analyzing scientific reports. In some countries environmental monitoring is strong, while in others it is weak.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersModerate (2)This group is obligated to keep daily fish catch log books but they do not participate directly in ecological monitoring.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenModerate (2)Fishermen resposnsible for monitoring their own catch, sometimes with on-board observers (e.g. from CDF) Twice a year, before (between January and April) and after (between June and August) each fishing season, a team, comprised of fishers, managers, naturalist guides and scientists, visit permanent monitoring sites over an average of 10 working days. (Toral-Granda, 2008) There was also on-board monitoring of sea-cucumber catch.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersHigh (3)81 permanent transects which NGOs use to monitor coral cover.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Low (1)Limited environmental monitoring of ODS over this snapshot, although it does increase towards the end.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityModerate (2)In conjunction with the AFMA, the AAD conducts an annual random stratified trawl survey in the HIMI region. The AFMA also performs a full stock assessment every two years using information from the trawl survey, commercial catch data and other life history data.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)CDF conducts most of the monitoring (supports the Parks Service)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Artisanal fishermen do not monitor coral cover.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersHigh (3)Monitor nesting beaches every month (September through December each year). Species, size and number of nesting turtles (Indonesia MPA Management, Reef Resilience, TNC) http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/asiaandthepacific/indonesia/explore/safe-haven-for-turtles.xml
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersHigh (3)Regularly monitor the spawning sites. Every full-moon Sept-April the number of fish at sites is recorded by Wakatobi National Park Authority.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersModerate (2)The 2 operators, along with the AFMA and other parties are involved in tag-recapture programs to assess the sustainability of stocks.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityModerate (2)The AFMA conducts an annual review of the fishery using catch, tag-recapture and other scientific data.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersModerate (2)Some amount of monitoring does occur by the managers, with support from CDF
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)Much environmental monitoring is conducted by NGOs - local NGO Papuan Sea Turtle Foundation (YPP) - with involvement of local communities
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)They at least direct (and fund) all the monitoring which is detailed in the management plan. (USFW conducts much of the monitoring, in line with their agency aims - A. Wilhelm)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorLow (1)No monitoring by tourism- CDF does monitoring
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)Lots of monitoring on turtles
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Monitoring is conducted by the Wakatobi National Marine Park Authourity and NGOs. No involvement of Bajau. Some community support (Butonese) http://www.reefresilience.org/case-studies/indonesia-mpa-management/
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)No monitoring of coral cover by Bajau
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Monitoring is conducted by the Wakatobi National Marine Park Authority. There is mention of support from communities, but the extent to which this actually occurs is unclear (and not the Bajau who are involved) http://www.reefresilience.org/case-studies/indonesia-mpa-management/
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks High (3)The Director, in consultation with affected Park users, is responsible for developing a research program with an annual review process to identify research priorities and to ensure maximum management benefit from research and survey investments. Survey and monitoring is often conducted by research institutes.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersModerate (2)The last census of the Royal Penguin took place in 1984-1985 (Birdlife International 2015). Major breeding colonies are visited on an annual basis.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)NOAA and USFWS monitor based on their agendas.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAHigh (3)The Sanctuary monitors the rocky shores to understanding the health of the ecosystem and how the habitat responds to disturbances (SIMoN 2015). Two long term projects are specifically focused on this habitat in the sanctuaries, Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS) and The Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO). Visitor use is also heavily monitored.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)CDF is responsible for much of the research on sharks. Monitoring occurs twice a year at various sites around the archipelago in partnership with CDF and universities
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)The research community is heavily involved in the monitoring of the rocky intertidal and has been for a long time. Long term projects include Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), The Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO), and the Point Pinos and the Duxbury Reef Restoration Program which assess visitor use.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismLow (1)No monitoring by tourism
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Monitoring mainly by NGOs, but some support from local community members
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)NGOs responsible for majority of the monitoring (with Papua University)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersModerate (2)Monitoring mainly by NGOs, but some support from local community members
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesHigh (3)The federal Magnuson Stevens Act requires the Council to describe the essential fish habitat in the Fishery Management Plans (FMPs). It wasn't until 1998 that groundfish essential fish habitat was first assessed, and it wasn't until Amendment 19 to the Groundfish Fishery Management Plan was completed in 2006 that groundfish essential fish habitat and habitat areas of particular concern for groundfish were defined. The Council collects data, most which originate from NMFS (National Marine Fishery Service), to see changes in essential habitats and reevaluate risks (PFMC Apex B, 2011). NMFS works highly with The Council and CDFW. A full review of the habitat is conducted every 5 years. Other data sources include universities, National Ocean Service, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, USGS, US Navy, National Science Foundation. All these bodies monitor the commons and the Council uses this data. Observers are required on all vessels and catch monitors are required during all offloading.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersModerate (2)The last organized formal count on Macquarie Island was conducted in 2005. However, managers regularly conduct less formal patrols to evaluate the conditions of light-mantled albatross on Macquarie Island.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersModerate (2)Based on some of the CORALINA reports, some of the environmental monitors are fishers
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersModerate (2)The Norwegian Polar Institute (coded as part of the group of Resource Managers) has been conducting a long-term annual monitoring study of polar bears in Svalbard since 1992. A key focus of the research includes understanding how habitat use and individual survival and reproductive rates may be influenced by environmental changes such as sea ice losses from climate change. As part of the study, scientists sedate a sampling of polar bears by remote darting from a helicopter every spring. Sightings from people visiting or living in the area also add to their understanding.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersLow (1)The fishers themselves are not officially conducting monitoring, but they do have to keep log books, which are used by the Resource Managers to help determine the status of the stock and to set appropriate regulations. (The Resource Managers also conduct their own research).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionLow (1)Due to the remoteness and high cost of science operations, there has been very little to zero monitoring of light-mantled sooty albatross at HIMI.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)Environmental monitoring of seabird interactions is undertaken by onboard observers.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenLow (1)All vessels have a monitor observing their activities, and fishermen have to support this monitor.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)No formal enforcement or environmental monitoring undertaken by this actor group
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)The research community is heavily involved in the monitoring of humpback whales, through programs such as TOPP (Tagging of Pacific Pelagics), GIS whale distribution maps, constant physical condition monitoring, photo-ID projects, the CSCAPE project (Collaborative Survey of Cetacean Abundance and the Pelagic Ecosystem), and many other monitoring initiatives.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks High (3)The Director, in consultation with affected Park users, is responsible for developing a research program with an annual review process to identify research priorities and to ensure maximum management benefit from research and survey investments. Survey and monitoring is often conducted by research institutes.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersHigh (3)Recreational users are frequently participating in the "SPOTTED" mobile device app for monitoring. Additionally, whale watching companies are significant contributors to constantly reporting sightings, behavior, and abundance.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersModerate (2)Partner institutes do most of the environmental monitoring (AIMS and Universities) but GBRMPA might monitoring specific threats like Crown of Thorns starfish and damage post cyclones.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationHigh (3)CDF conduct most of the monitoring and assist the Parks Service. CDF have also conducted most of the studies within the Galapagos on shark distribution and spatial patterns
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismLow (1)No monitoring conducted. Although tourism operators may record polar bear sightings, these sightings are not part of the formal monitoring process.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersModerate (2)Obligated to report all interactions with a southern right whale because it is a protected species. No additional monitoring is undertaken by commercial fishers.
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersModerate (2)While frequent and systematic, managers rely on industry reports for monitoring the status of squid. However, managers includes researchers which conduct studies on population and also includes observers. Fisheries Observers collect position data, catch/effort and biological data, conversion factor data, and seabird/ mammal interaction/mortality data from all fleets and fisheries (FIG 2015).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersModerate (2)Based on some of the CORALINA reports, some of the environmental monitors are fishers.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationHigh (3)CDF conducts most of the monitoring (supports the Parks Service)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)Fishermen do not participate in any formal monitoring of the green turtle population. Fishers are supposed to report turtle bycatch (although in practice there may be substantial underreporting).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersHigh (3)Black-legged kittiwakes are monitored in both Bjørnøya and West-Spitsbergen. The size of several colonies is estimated annually in order to detect short- and long-term changes in population size. Moreover, to explain and even predict those changes, several other parameters are monitored such as the annual adult survival (Spitsbergen and Bjørnøya) and the average breeding success (Bjørnøya). http://www.mosj.no/en/fauna/marine/black-legged-kittiwake.html
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersModerate (2)Monitoring is mentioned as important in the management plan, but couldn't find details on the actual monitoring plan. Also no regular monitoring reports available online. But any monitoring would be carried out by this actor.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersHigh (3)Individuals within these organizations conduct nesting surveys and analyse the data regarding trends over time.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismLow (1)Tourism operators are not part of the formal monitoring process
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersModerate (2)Monitoring is mentioned as important in the management plan, but couldn't find details on the actual monitoring plan. Also no regular monitoring reports available online. But any monitoring would be carried out by this actor.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersLow (1)The fisheries managers do not engage in monitoring of turtles, except perhaps bycatch reporting. (Turtle monitoring surveys are conducted by the government co-managers).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationHigh (3)CDF conducts most of the monitoring (supports the Parks Service)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)No monitoring by local communities
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAHigh (3)The Sanctuary is continuously monitoring and developing more monitoring efforts of whales in the area. A Sanctuary new mobile phone tool "Spotter" allows real time observations from anyone on whale sightings. The Sanctuaries work with a number of different groups (NGOs, Coast Guard, schools and industry) to coordinate research and monitoring. Observers are on commercial ships to assist this as well.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI ResearchersHigh (3)Nearly all of what they do is monitoring
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersModerate (2)The fishing industry has to participate in a variety of monitoring activities, including a fisheries observer programs (brining two onboard observers), a tag-recapture program, and annual trawl surveys.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Low (1)AFMA and the CCSBT engage in the majority of environmental monitoring of this commons along with research organizations like Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). The Director of National Parks will monitor and assess whether commercial fishing is having a negative impact on the Park’s conservation values by consulting with stakeholders.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersHigh (3)Monitoring trawls for shrimp are conducted to estimate the status of the population. These trawls are often supplemented with the fishermen’s data to understand the health of the shrimp stock.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)No monitoring by local communities
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAHigh (3)It conducts biological monitoring for this commons
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersModerate (2)This group is obligated to keep daily fish catch logbooks but they do not participate directly in ecological monitoring.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersModerate (2)The fisheries managers do the bulk of enforcement monitoring but due to the size of the areas the frequency and extent of monitoring is moderate. Partner institutes do most of the environmental monitoring (AIMS and Universities) but fisheries managers also monitor catch and sometimes monitor on vessels.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery ManagersModerate (2)All New Zealand boats fishing in Antarctic waters have Ministry of Fisheries observers on board to monitor the catch, compliance with rules, and to help with collecting specimens. Research is primarily dictated by industry.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenLow (1)Fishermen report catches, and observe changes, but no official monitoring exists.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersHigh (3)All vessels partake in monitoring. Fishers take charge of monitoring sea lion and take charge of monitoring sea birds.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersHigh (3)CDFW managers determine specific individuals to continue monitoring the ecosystem and fishing activity (catch). In-season monitoring dependent on fishing reports. Some surveys.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)Bycatch of sealions is recorded in onboard log books, but sealions tend to have drowned in the gillnet, dropping out and skinking when the net is hauled out and so bycatch is under-reported (Hamer et al. 2011). No additional monitoring is undertaken by commerical fishers.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)Fisheries observers, not the fishers themselves, do the environmental monitoring of seabird interactions.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersHigh (3)Monitoring depends on industry participation. Squid are assessed using a modified delury depletion model in real-time. Catches are monitored using a fishery patrol vessel. Observers present for monitoring.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityLow (1)2 Fisheries observers are onboard every vessel and monitor interactions with seabirds including light mantled albatross. However, they do not explicitly monitor conditions of light-mantled albatross.