|Variable Component Type||Environmental Common|
|Theme||Technology (learn about themes)|
|Question||Is there an important technological substitute for the economic function served by this environmental commons?|
|Importance||The existence, cost and availabilty of natural and/or manufactured products that can be used in place of the resource for one or more of its uses may introduce a substitution effect (North 1990). Subsitutes may reduce pressure on an environmental commons, but it may also discourage collective action to protect the commons.|
Natural or manufactured products that can be used in place of a commons for one or more of its typical uses. Examples include steel for timber in construction, livestock in place of wildlife for protein, sunscreen in place of ozone for UV protection, and a constructed wetland in place of a mangrove swamp.
|Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||No|
|Galapagos Sea Cucumber||No|
|Forests in Indonesia||Yes||Wood is the primary resource extracted from the forest, and most, if not all, wood products can be substituted with non-wood products - i.e. structural timber with steel or bamboo or engineered wood products, most other uses engineered wood products, pulp with pulp from annual crops. Some subsistence uses are less easily substitutable because subsistence users are poorly integrated into markets.|
|Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||No|
|Ozone||Yes||The benefits of ozone (i.e. UV protection) can be replaced with sunscreen.|
|Ozone Depleting Substances||Yes||These substances are being phased out through the use of substitute products.|
|Rhine Point source pollutants||Yes||Electrolitic processes in metal refineries were introduced in the 1960s to replace old thermal smelters. The chemical industry has shown more generally that new technologies can be used to reduce emissions of heavy metals.|
|Rhine Non-point source pollutants||No||There is manure as a substitute of fertilizers but it is potentially as polluting as chemical fertilizers. There are also agricultural practices that can substitute for the need to apply pesticides but only partially|
|GBR coral cover||No||Can get artificial reef structures, but can't substitute coral|
|GBR target fish|
|GBR target fish||No|
|NWHI Lobster Fishery||No|
|Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||Yes||Penguin oil fell out of fashion in the early 1900's due to public condemnation as well as the availability of cheaper chemical substitutes.|
|Light Mantled Albatross||Does not serve an important or valued economic function|
|Wakatobi coral cover||No||Can get artificial reef structures, but can't substitute coral|
|Wakatobi Green Turtle||No|
|Wakatobi fish spawning||No|
|Galapagos Green Turtle||No|
|NWHI Trophic Density||No||There is no technical substitute or manmade technology that can take the place of the different trophic densities within the NWHI.|
|Raja Ampat Reef Fish||No|
|Raja Ampat Coral Cover||No|
|Raja Ampat Green Turtle||No|
|NWHI Green Turtle||Not Applicable|
|California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||Yes||Riprap or Bulkhead can be used, but it is not as effective at overall ecosystem health and is typically not used in this area.|
|California Humpback Whale||No||There is no technical substitute or technology that can take the place of humpback whales in the Sanctuaries from an ecological or economic standpoint.|
|California Groundfish Habitat||No|
|Svalbard Polar Bear||No||Polar bear viewing is often a highlight for tourists. There is no technical substitute for that kind of interaction.|
|Seaflower coral reefs||No|
|Seaflower groupers||Yes||Other commercial species.|
|Svalbard Beluga||No||With white skin and often found in large pods, belugas are unique animals that tourists are interested in seeing, for which there is no substitute.|
|Svalbard Shrimp||Yes||To substitute for the wild shrimp harvest, shrimp aquaculture has become popular and produces a large amount of the global shrimp consumption.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||No||There is no technological substitute that can take the place of southern right whales in the GAMP (Commonwealth Waters) from an ecological or economic standpoint.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Benthos||No|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||No|
|GBR Green Turtle||No|
|Cenderwasih coral cover||No||Can get artificial reef structures, but can't substitute coral|
|Cenderwasih green turtle||No|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||No|
|Cenderwasih target fish||No|
|Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||No||No technological substitute|
|Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||No||No technical substitute|
|California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||No|
|New Zealand Sea Lion||No|
|Mangrove forest in Bragança, Brazil||No|
|Lombok aquaculture irrigation canals||No|
|Coral reefs, coast and small-island on and surrounding Gili Trawangan, Indonesia||Yes||Some artificial reef restoration (more than 100 individual structures) have been installed using BioRock technology. Perhaps the largest site doing this in the world.|
|Gulf of Nicoya fisheries||No|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.