|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Question||What is the primary mechanism of protection?|
|Select Options||Protecting key life history stage(s), Reducing threats, Encompassing entire habitat, Other|
Please select the main mechanism this MPA uses to conserve biodiversity, and detail in the explanation box what these mechanisms actually are
- Protecting key life history stage(s) e.g. breeding, spawning, foraging, nursery/juvenile habitat, or migration routes.
|Sectors||Marine protected areas|
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999||["Reducing threats"]|
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current||["Reducing threats"]|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||["Reducing threats"]||The main aim was to reduce destructive fishing|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats", "Encompassing entire habitat"]|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||["Reducing threats"]||The main aim was to reduce destructive fishing pressure|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]||Working with the shipping industry, the threat of ship strikes is reduced. Improving water quality reduces threat to ecosystem. Limiting trawling in critical areas reduces ecosystem destruction threat. Having a regulatory role in the disposal of dredged materials reduces dredging threats. In terms of grounded and sunken vessels, the Sanctuary coordinates salvage operations to remove these threats, and studies how to best go about recovering this area. The operation of motorized personal watercraft within the Sanctuary has been restricted to designated zones and access routes to reduce threats of vessels on marine life and habitats. Key breeding and feeding grounds are particularly protected, as well as nursery sloughs.|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||["", "Encompassing entire habitat"]||The Nature Reserves protect a large range of intact habitat. They also limit threats from disturbance by people, and for sea-birds, they reduce threats from hunting/harvesting.|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||["Reducing threats", "Encompassing entire habitat"]||Exclusion of all or only extractive activities from specific areas of the MPA. NEEDS TO BE CHECKED.|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats", "Encompassing entire habitat"]||Industrial fishing is banned Green turtle nesting and foraging|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]||The Marine Mammal Protection Zone (MMPZ) provides protection particularly for the southern right whale and Australian sea lion by: -Closing the MMPZ to all vessel access from May 1 - October 31 every year, a key time for southern right whale calving -Requiring a permit for commercial fishing outside of the seasonal closure. -Prohibiting mining activities (including seismic surveys) Considerations for the granting of permits for commercial activities, while focusing primarily on potential impacts on the values for which the Park was declared, will also consider broader biodiversity conservation issues and species for which the Commonwealth has national and international responsibilities In the Benthic Protection Zone (BPZ) there are to be no activities that adversely impact on the benthos, the subsoil beneath the benthos or associated flora and fauna. Demersal trawl fishing is not allowed, but other commercial fishing is allowed in accordance with a permit, and application for mineral exploration and extraction activities may be considered for approval by the Director of National Parks. Approval of mineral activities are also required from the Governor-General.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]||The MPA plan actually also includes land-based protection, which encompasses nesting areas for a variety of seabirds as well as Antarctic fur seals and Southern elephant seals. The Ocean component protects foraging grounds and is off limits to fishing.|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||Not Applicable|
|Cenderwasih governance system||["Encompassing entire habitat"]|
|Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil||["", "Other"]|
|Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA diving||["", "Reducing threats"]||Excluding fishing in the area|
|Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica||["", "Reducing threats", "Other"]|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.