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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
QuestionWhat is the primary mechanism of protection?
Select OptionsProtecting key life history stage(s), Reducing threats, Encompassing entire habitat, Other

Please select the main mechanism this MPA uses to conserve biodiversity, and detail in the explanation box what these mechanisms actually are

- Protecting key life history stage(s) e.g. breeding, spawning, foraging, nursery/juvenile habitat, or migration routes.
- Reducing threats
- Encompassing entire habitat

SectorsMarine protected areas

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999["Reducing threats"]
GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current["Reducing threats"]
Wakatobi National Park 2008-current["Reducing threats"]The main aim was to reduce destructive fishing
NWHI Monument Act 2006["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats", "Encompassing entire habitat"]
Raja Ampat Governance System["Reducing threats"]The main aim was to reduce destructive fishing pressure
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System ["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]Working with the shipping industry, the threat of ship strikes is reduced. Improving water quality reduces threat to ecosystem. Limiting trawling in critical areas reduces ecosystem destruction threat. Having a regulatory role in the disposal of dredged materials reduces dredging threats. In terms of grounded and sunken vessels, the Sanctuary coordinates salvage operations to remove these threats, and studies how to best go about recovering this area. The operation of motorized personal watercraft within the Sanctuary has been restricted to designated zones and access routes to reduce threats of vessels on marine life and habitats. Key breeding and feeding grounds are particularly protected, as well as nursery sloughs.
Svalbard Environmental Protection Act["", "Encompassing entire habitat"]The Nature Reserves protect a large range of intact habitat. They also limit threats from disturbance by people, and for sea-birds, they reduce threats from hunting/harvesting.
Seaflower MPA Act 2005["Reducing threats", "Encompassing entire habitat"]Exclusion of all or only extractive activities from specific areas of the MPA. NEEDS TO BE CHECKED.
Galapagos Governance System 1998-current["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats", "Encompassing entire habitat"]Industrial fishing is banned Green turtle nesting and foraging
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]The Marine Mammal Protection Zone (MMPZ) provides protection particularly for the southern right whale and Australian sea lion by: -Closing the MMPZ to all vessel access from May 1 - October 31 every year, a key time for southern right whale calving -Requiring a permit for commercial fishing outside of the seasonal closure. -Prohibiting mining activities (including seismic surveys) Considerations for the granting of permits for commercial activities, while focusing primarily on potential impacts on the values for which the Park was declared, will also consider broader biodiversity conservation issues and species for which the Commonwealth has national and international responsibilities In the Benthic Protection Zone (BPZ) there are to be no activities that adversely impact on the benthos, the subsoil beneath the benthos or associated flora and fauna. Demersal trawl fishing is not allowed, but other commercial fishing is allowed in accordance with a permit, and application for mineral exploration and extraction activities may be considered for approval by the Director of National Parks. Approval of mineral activities are also required from the Governor-General.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]The MPA plan actually also includes land-based protection, which encompasses nesting areas for a variety of seabirds as well as Antarctic fur seals and Southern elephant seals. The Ocean component protects foraging grounds and is off limits to fishing.
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanNot Applicable
Cenderwasih governance system["Encompassing entire habitat"]
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil["", "Other"]
Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA diving["", "Reducing threats"]Excluding fishing in the area
Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica["", "Reducing threats", "Other"]