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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionWhat property regime does this actor group apply to this commons?
Select OptionsPrivate property, Common property, Public property, Corporate property, Open-access
Unit
Role
ImportanceProperty regimes are distinct ways to manage a commons, and can play a large role in affecting outcomes for the commons via the incentive structures that they create for the actors involved.
Definition

Specifies the property regime that this actor group applies to this environmental commons. The categories of public, common, corporate and private lie along a continuum.

Private property: Private property is a regime that grants rights to individuals.

Common property: Common property is a regime that grants to a group of individuals, each of which may then have usufructory rights based on their fulfillment of communal obligations. An example would be a Mexican "ejido" which grants collective ownership of land to a group of peasants.

Government ("public") property: Government property is a regime that grants rights to a governmental entity, such as a nation-state. Commonly referred to as public property.

Corporate property: Corporate property is a regime that grants rights to large corporations (not small family-run businesses, which would be private property).

Open-access: Open-access is really a lack of any property regime, implying that there is no formal ownership structure to limit access to and/or use of a commons

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
The tragedy of the open-access commonsOpen-access
Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)Common and Private
TranshumanceCommon property
Private property rights and conservationPrivate property or Corporate property
Rational depletion of natural resourcesPrivate property or Corporate property
Individual transferable quotas (ITQs)Private property or Corporate property
Common property quotas common property

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesCommon propertyThe customary laws of many adat communities appear to have resembled a form of common property. As their system of rights was suppressed by the central govt., this was not a very important part of this case.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)Public property
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaPrivate propertyAlthough all forests were de jure public property, the concession system enabled de facto private property rights for timber concession holders.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers[]Humpback whales are protected by international and national regulations, and no one can extract whales.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursOpen-accessThis actor group essentially treats the forest as an open access system.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)Public propertyThe government claimed all forests as public property during this period, although it also gave out concessions, which were de facto private property.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINA["Public property"]It conserves the public resource
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia not clear that it applies a property regime - it is primarily about monitoring
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District Governments ?
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Public propertyQuotas are assigned to nations who can then apportion those quotas among its flagged fleet as it sees fit.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesCommon propertyCustomary law systems treat forest property as common property.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaPrivate propertyThis group treats concessions as private property - arguably, it also encourages an open access style of property regime outside of its territory.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Public propertyProportional quotas are assigned to nations and then distributed accordingly.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersPublic propertyQuotas are owned/held by states and then assigned to fishers.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H["Common property"]
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersPublic propertyQuotas are held by nations as public property and can then be assigned to fishers
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers[]Ozone depleting substances are held as private property
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Private property", "Open-access"]Traditional management areas (sasi), no-take areas, and subsistence use/open access areas
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Secretariat["Public property "]
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsPrivate property
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersCommon property
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers["Common property "]The waters, and coral reefs within it are common property, co-managed by GBRMPA and QPWS.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States ["Private property ", "Public property "]ODS quotas are held by States as part of the Montreal Protocol governance system and can be distributed among industry using a variety of instruments. However, with the exception of exempted uses, most phaseouts eventually lead to banning the use of ODS.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersCommon propertyThe waters, and coral reefs within it are common property, co-managed by GBRMPA and QPWS.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersPrivate propertyTotal allowable catch quotas and Individual transferable quotas
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Public propertyProportional quotas are assigned to nations and then distributed accordingly.
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D["Common property", "Open-access"]De jure common property; de facto open access
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersPublic propertyQuotas are held by nations as public property and can then be assigned to fishers
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers["Private property "]
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers["Public property"]While some areas are blocked off, the majority of the rocky areas are open access.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States ["Private property ", "Public property "]ODS is governed as private property, although bans introduced over this snapshot shift some products to public property
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan Fishermen["Private property"]Fishers need a permit to fish.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managers["Common property", "Public property"]Indonesian policy states that the government own and manage the marine environment - different levels of government manage different areas of the inshore marine area. Also manage through community-based and co-management initiatives with resource users including the Bajau.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers[""]Fishers own trade-able statutory fishing rights that grant them the right to harvest a fraction of each years total quota. For a number of years one company has held 70% of the quota, while the other holds the remaining 30%.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managers["Common property", "Public property"]
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managers["Private property", "Common property", "Public property"]Indonesian policy states that the government own and manage the marine environment - different levels of government manage different areas of the inshore marine area. Also manage through community-based and co-management initiatives with resource users including the Bajau.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managers["Private property", "Common property", "Public property"]Permit required to fish, and now restricted to residents of the Galapagos
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managers["Common property", "Public property"]
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational Users["Public property"]Humpback whales are protected by international and national regulations, and no one can extract whales.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship ["Private property", "Public property"]Native Hawaiians can apply to use the MPA for traditional purposes (private property). Researchers can apply to use the MPA, may include taking samples (Private property)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks ["Public property"]
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship ["Private property"]No rights to anyone, except researchers and managers (via permits)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector["Private property", "Common property", "Public property"]Permits to access nesting beaches and dive sites. Capture of turtles and harvest of eggs is illegal.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Open-access"]Managed as a state-owned multi-use MPA with some no-take zones and tourist zones. However, may act as de facto open access as regulations are only applied to very specific areas or are loosely applied. No customary / indigenous rights.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Common property", "Public property"]Indonesian policy states that the government own and manage the marine environment - different levels of government manage different areas of the inshore marine area. Also manage through community-based and co-management initiatives with resource users including the Bajau.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Managers["Public property"]Royal Penguins are protected and therefore owned by government.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Open-access"]Indonesian policy states that the government own and manage the marine environment - different levels of government manage different areas of the inshore marine area. Also manage through community-based and co-management initiatives with resource users including the Bajau.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managers["Private property", "Common property", "Public property"]
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector["Private property", "Common property", "Public property"]Tourism well regulated with permits
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B["Common property"]
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C["Common property"]
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A["Common property"]
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Private property", "Common property", "Open-access"]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers["Private property", "Common property"]Some areas a re no take, others local/traditional use
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Tourism[]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Private property", "Common property"]traditional and customary marine tenure - some areas no-take, and others for traditional use
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers[]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers["Private property", "Common property"]Some areas are no-take others for subsistence
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Public property"]The AFMA holds public property rights over the Macquarie Island toothfish stock. Holders of quota own rights to harvest a portion of each years total quota which may be set at zero.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Managers["Public property"]
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Public property"]Light-mantled albatross are held as a form of public property and may not be legally harvested.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Public property"]Government entities have the ability to make regulations surrounding southern right whale habitat and access to whales while in Australian waters.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin Foundation[]
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINA["Public property"]Has anyone put something else for any of the MPAs?
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource Managers["Public property"]
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship ["Private property", "Public property"]The NWHI is closed to all groups unless permitted for specific actions, such as cultural practices that enhance traditional knowledge or scientific research.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks ["Public property"]Government entities have the ability to make regulations surrounding southern right whale habitat and access to whales while in Australian waters.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers[""]Rights to light mantled albatross within Australian territorial waters are held by the Australian Government and is not granted to toothfish fishers, although technically they may be taken at a rate of 0.01 per 1000 hooks.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers["Private property"]Fishing rights are allocated via a quota system.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic Division["Public property"]
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Managers["", "Private property"]Since 2005, ITQ system, thus is private property for fishers
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F["Common property"]
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers["Public property "]
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism[]Polar bears are not really ‘owned’, but the Government Agencies have the ability to make rules surrounding their habitat and on hunting.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource Managers["Private property"]States that are permitted to fish for shrimp in the Svalbard zone are Canada, the EU, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Russia and Norway.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers["Private property ", "Public property "]Public - the Government Agencies co-manage the GBR habitat where turtles live, and have the ability to make management decisions about turtles. Turtles could also be considered ‘private property’ since only indigenous people have rights for traditional harvest.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managers["Common property"]Local communties have sea tenure
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers[""]
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Private property"]Output based regime based on individual transferable quotas allocated as Statutory Fishing Rights from an annual Total Allowable Catch.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managers["Common property"]Local communties have sea tenure
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E["Common property"]
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism[""]Kittiwakes are not really ‘owned’, but the Government Agencies have the ability to make rules surrounding their habitat
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managers["Public property "]
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers["Private property", "Common property", "Open-access"]
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks ["Private property", "Public property"]Commercial fishing in the GABMP (CW) of SBT can only be carried out under a permit issued by the Director or under a Commonwealth or State law. Quotas are held by nations as public property and can then be assigned to fishers. Permits are required to fish.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp Fishers["Private property"]Multinational fishery. The fishery is regulated by effort control: licences are required for the Russian and Norwegian vessels and the fleets operating in the Svalbard zone are regulated by number of effective fishing days and number of vessels by country. The Government Agencies have the ability to make rules surrounding the catch of shrimp.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin Foundation["Private property", "Common property", "Public property"]Fishing is by permit. Fishing for sea cucumbers is now closed.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers["Private property", "Public property"]Can trade ITQs. Exist within the public property regime of the Federal and State MPA
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers["Private property", "Common property", "Open-access"]
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G["Common property"]
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Researchers["Private property"]Permit required for research
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA[]Humpback whales are protected by international and national regulations, and no one can extract whales.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic Division["Public property"]
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA[]While some areas are blocked off, the majority of the rocky areas are open access.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries Agencies[]Groundfish are available to any with a permit and quota allotment.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource Managers[""]
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish Fishermen[]With permits, commons accessible to any American vessel. The quota system provides public property, regulations are set by the federal and state governments, and Risk Pools provide for community feedback on fishing activities and rules to be followed by that community risk pool.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managers["Private property", "Public property"]Total Allowable Catch, Closed Seasons and Individual Transferable Quotas
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermen[""]Private: licenses. Common in that how much any licensed vessel can catch is up to effort.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Public property"]The AFMA holds public property rights over the HIMI toothfish stock. Quota holders own rights to harvest a portion of each year's total quota.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Managers[""]Common property. Rights to manage dictated by a government rights. Licenses dictate who can access, and thus determine private property rights.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery Managers["", "Private property"]ITQ is private property. Management grants rights to individuals through quotas.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers[""]ITQ is private property
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Public property"]Rights to Australian sealion are held by the Australian Government
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid Trawlers[""]ITQs are private property
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Public property"]Albatross are considered public property; they cannot be legally harvested.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers["Public property"]Rights to light mantled albatross within Australian territorial waters are held by the Australian Government and are not granted to toothfish fishers, although technically they may be taken (3 per vessel; CCAMLR 2013).