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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionDoes the relevant governance system allow for changing rights and restrictions applied to this actor group in accordance with environmental shifts and new scientific knowledge?
Select Options
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceAs SES systems change and/or new knowledge of SES dynamics is acquired the ability to change rights and restrictions in response to the new information helps to more appropriately manage and sustainably use the commons. An example of when problems may occur is when rights are grandfathered (when new institutions do not apply retroactively) or otherwise unchanged.
Definition

Rights and/or restrictions can be subject to review and effectively changed if necessary.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HYes
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYes
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DYes
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYes
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersYesThe maximum number of fishing days was further reduced by 30% in 2006. http://www.fisheries.no/ecosystems-and-stocks/marine_stocks/shellfish/shrimp/#.VfxI2Zf08ms
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYes
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesThe governance system has been evaluated and revised on a number of occasions. Most notably longline fishing that was initially prohibited is now permitted, but includes strict bycatch mitigation measures.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers 
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesWhen stock assessments are completed, quotas and locations are shifted.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesThe governance system has changed on a number of occasions due to new information, changing conservation goals, or to meet the desires and needs of the fishing industry. E.g., New rules allowed for the implementation of longline fishing, which is now the main means for catching toothfish at HIMI; or the implementation of seabird bycatch mitigation measures, which were developed based on growing awareness (and concern) over the devastation to seabird populations that longlining was causing.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersNoRegulations remain strict and the same regardless of what the populate is doing.
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C 
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenYesWhen stock assessments are completed, quotas and locations are shifted. Rockfish conservation areas can be changed as well according to changes in knowledge and environmental shifts.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers Restrictions regarding bycatch of light-mantled albatross have been amended and become less strict allowing bycatch in proportion to the number of hooks set. However, bycatch mitigation measures are significant and have been effective.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNoNo evidence of this in relation to researchers
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesQuotas and locations are shifted.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorYesNew quotas each year. However, this is less based on scientific advice on the carrying capacity of the islands but rather a desire for more income.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoNo evidence of this.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoNo evidence of this
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersYesCORALINA does environmental assessments and should use that data to update/change management plan.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNoNo evidence of this in relation to researchers
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EYes
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FYes
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenYesYes - the fishery is now closed because stocks are too low
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNo
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNo
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GYes
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoNo evidence of this
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYes
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BMissing
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenYesConstant evaluation process. Can close fishery if conditions indicate no catch.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersYesManagers always engaging in conversations with scientists, and reviewing observation data. Make changes according to new information. New information can be squid abundance, and can increase TACC if good year. New information can be SLED efficacy, which can increase or decrease discount, or close fishery. Right to use is what is debated.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersYesIn-season monitoring allows for in-season changes according to conditions (e.g. spawning times) or sudden disturbances (e.g. unusual Illex predation)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Tourism 
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesWhen stock assessments are completed, quotas and locations are shifted.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNoBecause fishers aren't licensed the governance system does not necessarily respond to new information on rec fisher impacts.
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A 
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersYesThe governance system has removed capacity / rights from the system in response to new information. It also allows fishers some flexibility in where they fish in response to extreme events.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesAFMA (in conjunction with AAD and CCAMLR) actively applies adaptive management to the HIMI toothfish fishery, including with regards to seabird bycatch mitigation measures. Further, as vessels show compliance and maintain zero incidental catch rates, some fishers can apply for exemptions from some regulations (see Croxall 2008, Collins et al. 2010).