|Variable Component Type||Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Question||If there are black markets for goods or services associated with this resource, what is the largest scale at which they operate?|
|Select Options||local, sub-national, national, international, global, other|
|Importance||The scale of existence or co-existence of illegal markets can influence the control of illegal goods. Illegal markets operating at large scales might be more difficult to control.|
"This refers to the jurisdictional level at which the black market operates. A black market or underground economy means that goods or services are traded through illegal transactions (i.e., does not conform to the formal rules laid out by the governance system). Local: small-scale, counties, municipalities Subnational: substantial portion of a nation; e.g., state, province National: One nation International: 2+ nations Global: close to all nations."
|Case||Interaction Type||Component||Value Used||Explanation|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia||international||Much illegal timber was harvested in Indonesia during this time period, much of it for international markets.|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia||international||Illegal logging was closely associated with large scale log exports, although the extent of illegal logging may have declined slightly later in this period due to attempts by the EU and US to ban the import of illegally harvested timber.|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower groupers||Missing||NO DATA|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve||Biophysical||Galapagos Sea Cucumber|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||international|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||global||Some evidence of black markets; however, most illegal tuna is sold on open market with forged catch documentation.|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||Not applicable|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||local||Local users will poach primarily mussels and abalone from these habitats.|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR target fish||N/A|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||Not Applicable|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone||Not Applicable|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||international|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR target fish||Not Applicable|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sea Cucumber||international||When the fishery was open it was driven by strong pressure from global markets, especially Asia (Jones, 2013). Still some illegal markest for sea cucumber.|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi coral cover||Not Applicable|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||Not Applicable|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||Not Applicable|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Lobster Fishery||Not Applicable|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi Green Turtle||international||Yes - trade in turtles constitutes an ongoing problem in the WNP (Clifton 2013). Markets are probably Hong Kong and Taiwan (Clifton 2013). Although difficult to find buyer (Julian Clifton pers comm)|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Green Turtle||Not Applicable|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||Not Applicable|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Humpback Whale||Not Applicable|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Trophic Density||Not Applicable|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Green Turtle||Much of the illegal fishing that takes place in the Galapagos Marine Reserve is done via longlining targeting sharks, tuna, and marlin - some by-catch of turtles but these are not the intended black market target|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi fish spawning||international||Keep some live fish in small ponds next to their houses and trade with local traders, but the market itself is international (SPC Ref). The live reef food trade is strong in Indonesia. Species commonly targeted for live export include Serranidae (groupers), which are involved in fish spawning (Pet-Soede et al. 2004 - SPC bulletin). Market is international (Asia), but driven by middlemen in local villages, who coordinate the transfer of catches to large collection vessels (Exton 2010).|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Coral Cover||Not Applicable|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sharks||international||International - illegal shark finning continues to occur in the GMR both by local fishers and by mainland Ecuador and foreign (particularly Costa Rican) industrial vessels (Reyes and Murillo 2007). Over 22,000 shark fins and 680 shark carcasses were seized between 1998 and 2006, from vessels, on the islands and at airports leaving Galapagos or arriving at mainland Ecuador (Reyes and Murillo 2007).|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Green Turtle||Not Applicable|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Reef Fish||international||Live fish trade: Live fish comprising mainly groupers and Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus). This fishery is of great concern in the MPA because there are currently no functioning spawning aggregations and reef health surveys have shown these populations to be very low (Wilson et al. 2010 SPC report; Purwanto et al. 2012).|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Polar Bear||Not Applicable|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Groundfish Habitat||Not Applicable|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Shrimp||Not Applicable|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||Missing||Black markets do not appear to affect this particular stock; but there is a global market for illegal toothfish resources|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||Not Applicable|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||Japan has been overfishing SBT, but not within this MPA - An inquiry into Japan’s tuna fishing industry in 2006 found that there had been two decades of overfishing and bootlegging of SBT by Japan.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||There is no evidence of a black market for these albatross.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||King Penguin||Not Applicable|
|Falkland Islands squid||Governance||Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||international||Yes, but very minor.|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih coral cover||Not Applicable|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower coral reefs||Not Applicable|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Kittiwake||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR Green Turtle||international|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih target fish||international||ornamental fish trade; grouper live capture; shark finning (Erdmann pers comm.)|
|New Zealand squid||Governance||Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||No evidence|
|California squid||Governance||California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||None|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||international||In the 1990s and into the early 2000s, IUU fishing took five to six times the reported catch of toothfish in the convention area. Through a combination of CCAMLR management measures, industry and NGO efforts, and increased national surveillance, these rates have been drastically reduced (by greater than 90%; down to less than 2000 tonnes a year; see Osterblom et al. 2015). In the HIMI EEZ, IUU persisted in the 1990s into the mid-2000s, but has not been reported since 2006. However, IUU fishing is still believed to target the HIMI stock (which is part of a larger Kerguelen Plateau/South Indian Ocean population) outside of the HIMI EEZ (see e.g., AFMA 2014). There is a persistent IUU fishery for toothfish throughout the Southern Ocean. While overall IUU catches have been reduced dramatically|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.