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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionIf there are black markets for goods or services associated with this resource, what is the largest scale at which they operate?
Select Optionslocal, sub-national, national, international, global, other
Unit
Role
ImportanceThe scale of existence or co-existence of illegal markets can influence the control of illegal goods. Illegal markets operating at large scales might be more difficult to control.
Definition

"This refers to the jurisdictional level at which the black market operates. A black market or underground economy means that goods or services are traded through illegal transactions (i.e., does not conform to the formal rules laid out by the governance system). Local: small-scale, counties, municipalities Subnational: substantial portion of a nation; e.g., state, province National: One nation International: 2+ nations Global: close to all nations."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiainternationalMuch illegal timber was harvested in Indonesia during this time period, much of it for international markets.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiainternationalIllegal logging was closely associated with large scale log exports, although the extent of illegal logging may have declined slightly later in this period due to attempts by the EU and US to ban the import of illegally harvested timber.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersMissingNO DATA
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin Tunainternational
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaglobalSome evidence of black markets; however, most illegal tuna is sold on open market with forged catch documentation.
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral cover Not applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthlocalLocal users will poach primarily mussels and abalone from these habitats.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fish N/A
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna international
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberinternationalWhen the fishery was open it was driven by strong pressure from global markets, especially Asia (Jones, 2013). Still some illegal markest for sea cucumber.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleinternationalYes - trade in turtles constitutes an ongoing problem in the WNP (Clifton 2013). Markets are probably Hong Kong and Taiwan (Clifton 2013). Although difficult to find buyer (Julian Clifton pers comm)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhaleNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green Turtle Much of the illegal fishing that takes place in the Galapagos Marine Reserve is done via longlining targeting sharks, tuna, and marlin - some by-catch of turtles but these are not the intended black market target
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawninginternationalKeep some live fish in small ponds next to their houses and trade with local traders, but the market itself is international (SPC Ref). The live reef food trade is strong in Indonesia. Species commonly targeted for live export include Serranidae (groupers), which are involved in fish spawning (Pet-Soede et al. 2004 - SPC bulletin). Market is international (Asia), but driven by middlemen in local villages, who coordinate the transfer of catches to large collection vessels (Exton 2010).
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksinternationalInternational - illegal shark finning continues to occur in the GMR both by local fishers and by mainland Ecuador and foreign (particularly Costa Rican) industrial vessels (Reyes and Murillo 2007). Over 22,000 shark fins and 680 shark carcasses were seized between 1998 and 2006, from vessels, on the islands and at airports leaving Galapagos or arriving at mainland Ecuador (Reyes and Murillo 2007).
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish internationalLive fish trade: Live fish comprising mainly groupers and Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus). This fishery is of great concern in the MPA because there are currently no functioning spawning aggregations and reef health surveys have shown these populations to be very low (Wilson et al. 2010 SPC report; Purwanto et al. 2012).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish MissingBlack markets do not appear to affect this particular stock; but there is a global market for illegal toothfish resources
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna Japan has been overfishing SBT, but not within this MPA - An inquiry into Japan’s tuna fishing industry in 2006 found that there had been two decades of overfishing and bootlegging of SBT by Japan.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled Albatross There is no evidence of a black market for these albatross.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)internationalYes, but very minor.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green Turtleinternational
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishinternationalornamental fish trade; grouper live capture; shark finning (Erdmann pers comm.)
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.) No evidence
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens) None
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish internationalIn the 1990s and into the early 2000s, IUU fishing took five to six times the reported catch of toothfish in the convention area. Through a combination of CCAMLR management measures, industry and NGO efforts, and increased national surveillance, these rates have been drastically reduced (by greater than 90%; down to less than 2000 tonnes a year; see Osterblom et al. 2015). In the HIMI EEZ, IUU persisted in the 1990s into the mid-2000s, but has not been reported since 2006. However, IUU fishing is still believed to target the HIMI stock (which is part of a larger Kerguelen Plateau/South Indian Ocean population) outside of the HIMI EEZ (see e.g., AFMA 2014). There is a persistent IUU fishery for toothfish throughout the Southern Ocean. While overall IUU catches have been reduced dramatically