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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionAre mechanisms in place to address conflicts that arise over the use of this commons by this actor group?
Select Options
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceConflict Resolution is one of the eight original design principles proposed by Ostrom (1990) as characterizing robust institutions for managing common-pool resources, and has been widely supported as being important in subsequent studies (see Cox et al. 2010). The design principle was originally phrased as: "Appropriators and their officials have rapid access to low-cost local arenas to resolve conflicts among appropriators or between appropriators and officials." Conflict resolution is seen as important for limiting transaction costs of self-organization, as well as for limiting conflict escalation, which can destroy the sustainability of resource systems
Definition

Conflict resolution mechanisms include a broad variety of formal and informal mechanisms that allow individuals and groups to resolve their differences at relatively low cost. In Governing the Commons, Ostrom (1990) discussed conflict resolution mechanisms that included formal and informal village councils, as well as mechanisms that included appeals to higher authorities, such as courts, formal governments, and other decision-making authorities set up specifically to solve natural resource conflicts.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
CBNRM design principlesYes
Conflict resolution and collective actionYes
Private property rights and conservationYes

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesNoI haven't found any evidence of this.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia unknown?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia ?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaYesWe don't have alot of direct evidence about this, however it appears that the central government, another actor, as well as APKINDO (a trade group) served as conflict resolution methods for conflicts within this group.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesNoAlthough there may have been customary conflict resolution systems, these were undermined during this period, and there was no ability for these communities to access conflict resolution - they were violently suppressed by the government.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursNoWe found no evidence for conflict resolution mechanimss.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersYesEnforcement through the Sanctuary, Coast Guard, CDFW, or NMFS deals with conflicts of recreational users breaking regulations.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HMissing
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersMissing
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers Not applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNo
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DMissing
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firms 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersYesMechanisms are in place. Research on their effectiveness is not available.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersYesMechanisms are in place. Research on their effectiveness is not available.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersYesCompanies can petition if they feel unjustly dealt with. Formal processes exist but are rarely used.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNo
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenYesLegal process in place. Informal mechanisms exist
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYesThe permit system creates clear structures and violations result in clear sanctions.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesLimited instances of conflict with southern right whales. But in general there are processes for dealing with conflict - the management plan allows the Director of National Parks to undertake enforcement actions under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act and enforcement operations are assisted by Customs, Coastwatch and the Australian Defence Force
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorYesThere is a legal process in place - not sure if any infractions have ever gone to court though
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersYesThe Bajau have well-developed mechanisms for dealing with conflict within their society (Julian Clifton pers comm) - turtles are not a major catch species, so unlikely conflict is to arise over such a commons
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesTraditional management "sasi" practices were reinvigorated through the implementation of the MPAs and such traditional management and systems has channels to address possible conflicts
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismYesIn theory yes, because they are established Tourism regulations
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesLegal process, and village chiefs have the power to address conflicts over the use of the green turtles.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesVillages each have a chief that have the power to address conflicts.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersYesThe regulations for fishing are clearly defined, and any infraction of the rules could result in penalty (and fines have been enforced). The Coast Guard conducts regular monitoring. Note however, it is more difficult to enforce regulations over international vessels than Norwegian ones. The Svalbard Treaty outlines that Svalbard should be a demilitarized zone, and therefore other countries may question any use of force to enforce regulations (as a political statement).
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CMissing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenYesIf a user does not follow the regulations in place, that user is held to the law and can be arrested and/or fined. If a general discussion is needed, there are public hearings and public meetings for conflicts to be addressed and discussed.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersYesThe Bajau have well-developed mechanisms for dealing with conflict within their society (Julian Clifton pers comm) - coral harvesting is not a major activity so unlikely conflict is to arise over such a commons
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYesResearchers do not use humpback whales in the form of "taking" but instead monitor and observe them. The permit system creates clear structures and violations result in clear sanctions.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersYesAssume mechanisms are in place, as with commercial fishers. Also potential to appeal through justice system. However how effective these mechanisms are has not been researched.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYesAlthough I have not found literature which specifically describes conflict resolution mechanisms, it is likely that these exist. The tourism association AECO has a formal structure. Each Annual General Meeting may provide the opportunity to bring up, discuss, and vote on issues.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersYesThere are official courts.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMissing
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesThe Management Plan of the GABMP (CW) addresses conflicts that may arise over the use of this commons by this actor group in the GABMP (CW). The Director will monitor and assess whether commercial fishing is having a negative impact on the Park's conservation values and can make a determination to control fishing gear and fishing practices. There are prescriptions in the Management Plan that allow for the Director of National Parks to undertake enforcement actions under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act and enforcement operations are assisted by Customs, Coastwatch and the Australian Defence Force.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYesAlthough I have not found literature which specifically describes conflict resolution mechanisms, it is likely that these exist. The tourism association AECO has a formal structure. Each Annual General Meeting may provide the opportunity to bring up, discuss, and vote on issues.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EMissing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesIf conflicts were to arise, the industry has many consultative forums through which they could potentially resolve them (e.g, SouthMAC, SARAG, CCF), further, they could utilize the national legislative process. However, evidence of their use and effectiveness is not available.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FMissing
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersYesVillages each have a chief that have the power to address conflicts.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GMissing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersYesThe Bajau have well-developed mechanisms for dealing with conflict within their society (Julian Clifton pers comm)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersYesVillages each have a chief that have the power to address conflicts.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersYesDefended and Non-defended hearing options available (MPI 2012). All decisions are reported back to stakeholders. Any disagreements can go to court. In 2002 the fishery was closed and the fishing industry took the minister to Court. Overturned. This has happened the following year (FAP 2016). Take them to high court (national court, local court doesn't have power to overturn Ministry of Fisheries).
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BMissing
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenYesCWPA protects fishers and engages in conflicts. Can take conflicts to state court. Can also address issues through official stakeholder engagement processes.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesThere are currenlty no bycatch limits on sealions so unlikely to be conflict over this commons. But in general ther are processes for dealing with conflict - the management plan allows the Director of National Parks to undertake enforcement actions under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act and enforcement operations are assisted by Customs, Coastwatch and the Australian Defence Force
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AYes
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesIf conflicts were to arise, the industry has many consultative forums through which they could potentially resolve them (e.g, SouthMAC, SARAG, CCF), further, they could utilize the national legislative process. However, evidence of their use and effectiveness is not available.