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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionWithin this governance system, do larger governmental and/or non-governmental organizations actively support (e.g. through the supply of physical or financial resources, information) lower level jurisdictions (States, Regions, Cities)? (Please clarify in the description who is providing the funding and how secure that funding is)
Select Options1 No support, 2 Some support, 3 Extensive support
Unit
Role
ImportanceExternal support from a governmental agency can greatly aid in the ability of local commons users to overcome some comparative disadvantages of local, community-based governance (such as a lack of scientific information). On the other hand, such support can also crowd out the motivations of local users to self-organize and act collectively.
Definition

Support can take many forms, such as the offering of material assistance, intangible resources such as scientific expertise or environmental information.

No support: Higher level organizations involved provide no support to lower level jurisdictions.

Some support: Higher level organizations involved provide moderate or sporadic levels of support to communities.

Extensive support : Higher level organizations involved provide extensive, ongoing support.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Crowding out from external supportExtensive support
Marginalization and degradationExtensive support
Decentralization and local capacityNo support

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012No support (1)Some support from research institutes for environmental monitoring of sea lions - but not actively supporting the MPA, rather focussing on the endangered species.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemExtensive support (3)Raja Ampat is part of the Birds Head Seascape - some coordination across the whole region. Involvement of NGOs across the region - including funding, education, awareness. Also part of the Coral Triangle Initiative - who provide funding and guidance. Also huge amounts of external funding facilitated through NGO involvement (inc USAID, the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentExtensive support (3)Yes the WNP receives funding and support from COREMAP and the Coral Triangle Initiative - these larger organisations also direct the direction of the MPA to some extent. USAID funding for new COREMAP-CTI project has US$ 47.38 million until 2019 (for all MPA and countries in Coral Triangle though) http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P127813/coral-reef-rehabilitation-management-program-phase-iii?lang=en
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Some support (2)The Marine Division of the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities manage the GABMP (CW) under delegation from the Director of National Parks (2010 - 2013) and are funded by the Commonwealth government.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActNo support (1)Operated through the central government. The Coast Guard and Polar Institute are both branches of (and funded by) the Norwegian central government, and these actors (part of the Resource Managers group) are important in the management process.
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceThe Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)No support (1)The UK does not provide any natural resource management funding to the Falkland Islands. The Falkland Islands government supports its own governance. Jurisdiction is all at the national level.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanSome support (2)The AFMA has benefitted from the efforts of CCAMLR and toothfish operators with regards to the development of seabird bycatch mitigation measures and other information. Support in the form of information has been provided by Scientists (particularly those studying Albatross Populations in the Southern Hemisphere), BirdLife International (a bird conservation NGO) as well as ACAP and CCAMLR, which both helped provide information and a forum for developing seabird bycatch mitigation measures. CCAMLR explicitly convened a Working Group on Incidental Mortality Associated with Fishing, comprised of seabird and longline fishing experts which met annually from 1993 until 2009.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanSome support (2)The AFMA receives some information about toothfish management and seabird mitigation measures from CCAMLR and other stakeholders.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActNo support (1)Operated through the central government
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System Extensive support (3)The various agencies work closely with each other and often provide crucial information and also materials (e.g. Coast Guard vessels used to enforce Sanctuary rules). In 1995, the Office of Law Enforcement adopted COPPS as a national initiative, designed to empower communities and individuals, to actively participate in their local conservation and management of our valuable living marine resources, giving means to local officers to enforce Sanctuary rules and regulations.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemMissing
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemMissing
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanSome support (2)The PFMC and CDFW work very closely, as well as work with NMFS and the Coast Guard and Harbor staff. Local officials can enforce violations.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanNo support (1)Actors involved in the Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan does not receive support from external actors as they are the top-level actor group in this interaction.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentExtensive support (3)Yes there is support from numerous NGOs (CDF, Galapagos Conservancy, and WWF) who provide expertise and funding. Wild Aid provided much of the funding and capacity for enforcement of the MPA and funded the Vessel Monitoring System (http://www.wildaid.org/ecuador) with the idea that the Parks Service would then take this on. There is likely on-going support because it is a high profile area, but the level of funding is not secure.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentExtensive support (3)Yes there is support from numerous NGOs (CDF, Galapagos Conservancy, and WWF) who provide expertise and funding. Wild Aid provided much of the funding and capacity for enforcement of the MPA and funded the Vessel Monitoring System (http://www.wildaid.org/ecuador) with the idea that the Parks Service would then take this on. There is likely on-going support because it is a high profile area, but the level of funding is not secure.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System Extensive support (3)A number of resources (e.g. information, pamphlets, maps) are given to recreational users and to the public. In 1995, the Office of Law Enforcement adopted COPPS as a national initiative, designed to empower communities and individuals, to actively participate in their local conservation and management of our valuable living marine resources, giving means to local officers to enforce Sanctuary rules and regulations.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentSome support (2)The GBR is co-managed between the federal and provincial governments through agreements which outline their joint responsibility; therefore, the federal government is actively engaged in management (supplies both resources and information).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005Extensive support (3)Funding for the MPA management comes form international organizations such as GEF. As such it is highly uncertain because it is for a clearly specified time period (in this case 5 years) after which new funds need to be secured for management to continue.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006No support (1)No evidence of external support.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006No support (1)No evidence of external support.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Some support (2)Some support from research institutes for environmental monitoring – including CSIRO and The Australian Fisheries Management Authority and the Commission for the Conservation of SBT.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanSome support (2)Other international agreements and conservation NGOs provide support in the form of information which helps guide management of the HIMI marine reserve, including for King Penguins. Because the reserve falls under other protective status and legislation (e.g., World Heritage Status), there may be other governmental support for the marine reserve.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanSome support (2)Other international agreements (e.g., ACAP - the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatross and Petrels) and conservation NGOs (e.g, BirdLife International) provide support in the form of information which helps guide the management of Light Mantled Albatross.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanSome support (2)The Government of Australia provided some support for the implementation of invasive eradication program.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentExtensive support (3)Yes there is support from numerous NGOs (CDF, Galapagos Conservancy, and WWF) who provide expertise and funding. Wild Aid provided much of the funding and capacity for enforcement of the MPA and funded the Vessel Monitoring System (http://www.wildaid.org/ecuador) with the idea that the Parks Service would then take this on. There is likely on-going support because it is a high profile area, but the level of funding is not secure.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentExtensive support (3)Yes the WNP receives funding and support from COREMAP and the Coral Triangle Initiative - these larger organisations also direct the direction of the MPA to some extent. USAID funding for new COREMAP-CTI project has US$ 47.38 million until 2019 (for all MPA and countries in Coral Triangle though) http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P127813/coral-reef-rehabilitation-management-program-phase-iii?lang=en
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentSome support (2)Fisheries managers consults with commercial fishing sectors
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Some support (2)The Australian Government provides some support for the management of nature reserve. There have at times been some conflict over these resources.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006No support (1)No evidence of external support.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentExtensive support (3)Yes the WNP receives funding and support from COREMAP and the Coral Triangle Initiative - these larger organisations also direct the direction of the MPA to some extent. USAID funding for new COREMAP-CTI project has US$ 47.38 million until 2019 (for all MPA and countries in Coral Triangle though) http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P127813/coral-reef-rehabilitation-management-program-phase-iii?lang=en
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Some support (2)The Australian government has provided some support to the Government of Tasmania to implement aspects of the Nature Reserve Management Plan. There has also been some conflict over funding in the past. Other international agreements (e.g., ACAP - the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatross and Petrels) and conservation NGOs (e.g, BirdLife International) provide support in the form of information which helps guide the management of Light Mantled Albatross.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemExtensive support (3)Raja Ampat is part of the Birds Head Seascape - some coordination across the whole region. Involvement of NGOs across the region - including funding, education, awareness. Also part of the Coral Triangle Initiative - who provide funding and guidance. Also huge amounts of external funding facilitated through NGO involvement (inc USAID, the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentSome support (2)Co-managers consult with users
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemSome support (2)WWF is the main International NGO in this area, although it appears to not be as high a priority as other areas, e.g. Raja Ampat, as it receives considerably less attention. Part of the Coral Triangle, so some support though this network too.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanSome support (2)Support in the form of information has been provided by Scientists (particularly those studying Albatross Populations in the Southern Hemisphere), BirdLife International (a bird conservation NGO) as well as ACAP and CCAMLR, which both helped provide information and a forum for developing seabird bycatch mitigation measures. CCAMLR explicitly convened a Working Group on Incidental Mortality Associated with Fishing, comprised of seabird and longline fishing experts which met annually from 1993 until 2009.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Some support (2)The government of Australia provides some support for the design and implementation of the Nature Reserve Management Plan.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActNo support (1)Operated through the central government. The Coast Guard and Polar Institute are both branches of (and funded by) the Norwegian central government, and these actors (part of the Resource Managers group) are important in the management process.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanExtensive support (3)The CDFW operates under a grant of authority derived from the California Constitution, State and federal laws, rules and policies promulgated by the Fish and Game Commission, and other control agencies such as the Department of Finance and the State Controller’s Office. Federal aid contributes somewhat to fishing management. A number of federal and state agencies support and collaborate with CDFW managers, e.g. enforcement, monitoring, scientific efforts.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005Extensive support (3)Funding for the MPA management comes form international organization - GEF. As such it is highly uncertain because it is for a clearly specified time period (in this case 5 years) after which new funds need to be secured for management to continue.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemSome support (2)WWF is the main International NGO in this area, although it appears to not be as high a priority as other areas, e.g. Raja Ampat, as it receives considerably less attention. Part of the Coral Triangle, so some support though this network too.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Quota Management SystemSome support (2)Fishing, research, and SLEDs primarily by fishing industry. Government provides observers and scientific reports. Observers are key elements for monitoring.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemExtensive support (3)Raja Ampat is part of the Birds Head Seascape - some coordination across the whole region. Involvement of NGOs across the region - including funding, education, awareness. Also part of the Coral Triangle Initiative - who provide funding and guidance. Also huge amounts of external funding facilitated through NGO involvement (inc USAID, the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanSome support (2)Other organizations provide support in the form of information (e.g., CCAMLR, COLTO), monitoring (other fishing vessels just outside the MPA) and enforcement (e.g., surveillance carried out by the Australian Defense Force).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanSome support (2)The fisheries management plan is highly informed by CCAMLR, research by the AAD, and input from SouthMAC and SARAG.