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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeContext (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow high was the level of participation of this actor group or their representatives in the (most recent) zoning of this marine protected area?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceAccording to a number of studies marine protected areas are experiencing a governance crisis due to a number of factors (Mora et al. 2003, Green et al. 2011, Hargreaves-Allen et al. 2011. One of those factors is a lack of community/actor involvement in MPA institutional design (Ban et al. 2011). Governance processess that involve local actors in the MPA management from the very beginning are more successful in reaching their proposed goals and objectives.
Definition

This variable describes the level of participation this actor group or their representatives has in the the zoning of the MPA. High: The actor group is in charge of managing the resource with or without the support of the lead management agency. Medium: The lead management agency consults the actor group during the decision-making process. Low: The lead management agency informs the actor group of their decisions. None: The lead management agency does not seek input from the actor group.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersHigh (3)Artisanal fishers were involved in the MPA zoning process from the beginning
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismLow (1)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersLow (1)Fishers were not involved in the decision, but signatory counties can still fish within the 12nm protection zone
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenHigh (3)The PMB, which includes fishing representatives, were responsible for deciding the zoning for the GMR (conflicts meant that the fishing sector got the outcome they wanted)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Bajau had no involvement in zoning of MPA
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)Fishers were able to participate in the design and zoning of the Macquarie Island Marine Park via the Sub-Antarctic Fisheries Management Advisory Committee (SouthMAC). Their is limited overlap between the fishery and the marine park. Moreover the small area in which fishing might take place along the Macquarie Ridge is designated as a species protection zone in which some fishing is allowed.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)Recreational fishers were very vocal in the rezoning process, and politically powerful. Thus there was active participation by many recreational fishers, although participation likely varied widely, with some individuals very active and others not participating. Zoning plans did not necessarily change in response to the political voice of recreational fishers.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersMedium (2)MPAs managed by co-management so involvement of local fishers is medium through representatives on management (e.g village chiefs) - MPAs were built upon traditional sasi management
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersMedium (2)Researchers are consulted and their work is incorporated into siting of zones. Researcher participation is very high in what zones should be where.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersMedium (2)Researchers are consulted and their work is incorporated into siting of zones. Researcher participation is very high in what zones should be where.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersMedium (2)Recreational users influence zoning of the Sanctuaries through stakeholder input, but do not make decisions. Recreational user needs were considered in zoning.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenMedium (2)Fishermen influence zoning of the Sanctuaries through stakeholder input, but do not make decisions. Fishermen needs were considered in zoning, and their participation was particularly high in determining Groundfish Essential Fish Habitats.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorHigh (3)The PMB, which includes Tourism representatives, were responsible for deciding the zoning for the GMR (although constricts with the fishing sector led to the final, minimal zoning plan)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)Fishers were able to participate in the design and zoning of the Macquarie Island Marine Park via the Sub-Antarctic Fisheries Management Advisory Committee (SouthMAC). Their is limited overlap between the fishery and the marine park. Moreover the small area in which fishing might take place along the Macquarie Ridge is designated as a species protection zone in which some fishing is allowed.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismLow (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)See above. The Fishing industry, as part of the HIMI Stakeholder Group, was able to keep some proposed areas as "conservation zones" where fishing would be allowed, while the rest of the MPA was a fully no-take zone.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersMedium (2)Communities heavily involved through traditional management, likely assisted/directed by NGOs, but coded as high. (full community-participation involvement for zoning: Grantham et al. 2013)
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersHigh (3)Artisanal fishers were involved in the MPA zoning process from the beginning.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHigh (3)There was a high degree of consultation in the re-zoning efforts of the GBR. Nevertheless, there remain some misgivings about the (large) size of no-take and no-trawling areas, despite the substantial $250million structural adjustment package (Ledee et al 2012).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Bajau had no involvement in zoning of MPA
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)MPA was designated by central government. WWF did try to engage local communities in zoning in 2008.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Commercial fishers were involved in negotiation and consultation with Environment Australia (EA) in the siting of the MPA during the decision-making process (Tacconi, 2000).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)Recreational fishers were very vocal in the rezoning process, and politically powerful. Thus there was active participation by many recreational fishers, although participation likely varied widely, with some individuals very active and others not participating. Rec fishers did not however necessarily impact the zoning plans.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismLow (1)Overall, tourism wasn't involved and the tourism section of the government was established after the MPAs. Although the Misool MPA was heavily influenced by the eco-resort.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)MPAs were first declared through adat/traditional declarations
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)See above explanation for siting.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)Commercial fishers were vocal in opposition to the re-zoning plans, aimed to protect fish and reefs, however they did not directly influence the plans.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)MPA was designated by central government. WWF did try to engage local communities in zoning in 2008.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Bajau had no involvement in zoning of MPA
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Commercial fishers were involved in negotiation and consultation with Environment Australia (EA) in the siting of the MPA during the decision-making process (Tacconi, 2000).
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenNot Applicable
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Commercial fishers were involved in negotiation and consultation with Environment Australia (EA) in the siting of the MPA during the decision-making process (Tacconi, 2000).