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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHas this commons user group had to leverage their assets and take on debt in order to establish and continue their use of this commons?
Select Options1 Little to no debt, 2 A moderate level of debt, 3 A high level of debt
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceHigh levels of debt can be very problematic for a user group and the commons on which they depend. Insofar as this debt has occurred to accrue extractive capital, it lessens the ability of the commons user group to adapt and change its behavior to decrease levels of extraction of this resource (see Steneck et al. 2011).
Definition

Debt signifies that an actor group owes resources to another set of actors and cannot easily negate or escape the contract that established this debt.

 

The levels of debt and the extent of leveraged assets are relative to the resources available to the commons user: what is a lot of debt to one actor group may not be to another. Little to no debt signifies that, relative to assets, the amount of debt is highly manageable and not problematic for the user group. A high level of debt means the opposite:

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Gilded trapsHigh

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLittle to no debt (1)Long history of exploiting local area, and no evidence found of debt amongst local subsistence users
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLittle to no debt (1)Long tradition of subsistence use of resources
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLittle to no debt (1)No debt associated with turtle harvest
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp Fishers No evidence
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLittle to no debt (1)long tradition of subsistence fishing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLittle to no debt (1)No debt associated with research projects.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenA moderate level of debt (2)Banks no longer finance fishermen, but a large amount of capital is needed to enter the fishery, through equipment and permits.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersA moderate level of debt (2)While some companies may need financial support in starting or maintaing their business, this has not been widely discussed in the community.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersA moderate level of debt (2)Fishers report that a key challenge of the Structural Adjustment Package offered during re-zoning and of associated buy-out schemes is that they do not compensate fishers for their investments in fisheries technologies.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLittle to no debt (1)No evidence of debt found in the literature.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLittle to no debt (1)No evidence found
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorLittle to no debt (1)Likely higher debt by smaller-scale operators - there was evidence of this in the fishing sector and many have now moved into the tourism sector
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLittle to no debt (1)long tradition of subsistence fishing
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersA high level of debt (3)Yes. Of the 7 companies, they have to borrow from the banks to upgrade or replace trawlers. Very expensive, but banks have no issue loaning.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLittle to no debt (1)No debt associated with research projects.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLittle to no debt (1)long tradition of subsistence fishing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenA high level of debt (3)The sea cucmber fishery was associated with a high level of debt and was one of the reasons proposed for the collapse of the fishery (Shepherd et al., 2004)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLittle to no debt (1)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLittle to no debt (1)Long history of subsistence fishing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLittle to no debt (1)Pretty cheap to get recreatoinal fishing gear
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLittle to no debt (1)Long history of subsistence fishing
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenLittle to no debt (1)Vessels are handed down from families. Banks do not finance fishing.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersA moderate level of debt (2)High costs, so likely but unsure. VERY expensive to buy into squid. Banks can finance, but this isn’t very common.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLittle to no debt (1)No evidence of debt found in the literature. And some operations are highly profitable.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismLittle to no debt (1)No evidence. Local homestays receive tax break.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing