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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeHeterogeneity (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionHow high is the level of variation in the cultural identity of the group members?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceThe effect of heterogeneity - including cultural differences such as ethnicity - on the capacity of individuals to self-organise is highly contested (Varughese and Ostrom 2001). This variable allows us to test the importance of cultural heterogeneity within actor groups on governance outcomes. The direction of the relationship between this variable and collective action is highly contested. It complements the variables ActorEconomicHeterogeneity and ActorPoliticalHeterogeneity.
Definition

"Cultural heterogeneity refers to differences in cultural identity related to, for instance, class, ethnicity, language, traditions, religion, sense of place, and many other cultural aspects. These differences can make it more or less difficult for people to communicate, trust and co-operate with each-other. Definitions of values: High: The members of this actor group are very different with respect to the languages spoken, religion, and etchnicity. Low: The members of this actor group are very similar with respect to the languages spoken, religion, and etchnicity."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Social diversity and general resilienceHigh
Conditions for general resilienceHigh
Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)Low
Cultural heterogeneity and collective actionHigh

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HLow (1)
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DLow (1)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersHigh (3)States that are permitted to fish for shrimp in the Svalbard zone are Canada, the EU, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Russia and Norway.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismMedium (2)Likely a mix due to local expedition cruises and overseas cruise operators
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenMedium (2) Many fishermen were immigrants from mainland Ecuador
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BLow (1) Nearly all of the respondents are from the same religious denomination
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C 
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenLow (1)
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ALow (1)All respondents from the community share the same religious affiliation.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersLow (1)Artisanal fishers belong to the same ethnic group.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Generally low across the MPA network, although the larger MPAs (Dampier Strait and SE Misool) have higher heterogeneity with a mix of Papuans, Mollucans, and Biak (migration during last ~200years)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)All Bajau - some differences among communities, but they all identify strongly with each other, especially compared to any other group in the region
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersMedium (2)Recreational users differ in backgrounds, ethnicities, languages, and nationalities. However, many are US citizens who speak English.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Generally low across the MPA network, although the larger MPAs (Dampier Strait and SE Misool) have higher heterogeneity with a mix of Papuans, Mollucans, and Biak (migration during last ~200years)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorHigh (3)local small-scale tourism to international. Many people on the Galapagos are immigrants from mainland Ecuador. International tourism likely to have a mix of nationalities, both as customers and crew.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FMedium (2)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)All ethnically Bajau
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersLow (1)Artisanal fishers belong to the same ethnic group.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismMedium (2)Likely a mix due to local expedition cruises and overseas cruise operators
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ELow (1)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)Local fishers are all Papuan, although differences in dependence on marine resources versus agriculture (depending of history of the tribe)
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GLow (1)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)All ethnically Bajau
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)Local fishers are all Papuan, although differences in dependence on marine resources versus agriculture (depending of history of the tribe)
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersMedium (2)New Zealand companies with all New Zealanders. Korean vessels flagged New Zealand with Joint Venture, but Korean captain and crew. History of some Ukrainian vessels and crew.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenMedium (2)Many are Italian (Sicilian in Monterey), ancestors from immigrants who moved to California in the early 1900s, now a lot of crew are Vietnamese, but mostly same community. The San Pedro fleet is primarily traditional Slav, Scandinavian, Italian, and Portuguese participants, but all American (Pomeroy and FitzSimmons 2001).
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersHigh (3)While quota is held by Falkland Island companies, the fishery is primarily foreign fishers from many different areas (mostly Spain). Owners are from Falkland Islands. Officers are from Spain. Crew is from Peru, Indonesia, Africa, among others.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Generally low across the MPA network, although the larger MPAs (Dampier Strait and SE Misool) have higher heterogeneity with a mix of Papuans, Mollucans, and Biak (migration during last ~200years)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismHigh (3)International liveaboards and local homestays
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)