|Variable Component Type||Actor|
|Theme||Leadership (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||What type of leadership does this group have, if any?|
|Select Options||No leader, Formal leader, Informal leader|
|Importance||"Leadership may have an impact both on the emergence and maintenance of collective action, as well as on the effectiveness of the governance system. Additionally, leadership may be particularly important to understand processes of governance change. From a political economy perspective, leadership can be defined as individuals or groups within a community that often contribute more resources to the production of that good than the rest of the community (Olson 1965). In so doing, leaders frequently bear a disproportionate amount of the costs of collective action. Leaders have also been characterized for their sense of opportunity, social skills and knowledge. The governance activities associated to leaders range from reducing the costs of collective decision making and finding effective solutions for a particular environment (Ostrom et al. 1999) to developing a common vision and sense of shared problems (Folke et al. 2005)."|
"A leader is a singular individual/agent with entrepreneurial skills, high levels of motivation, respected as a leader, and who makes a personal commitment to commons governance. A formal leader is an agent who/that has a formal recognition as a leader (e.g., elected, appointed as a leader with a leadership mandate). An informal leader is an agent who emerges as a leader without formal position or leadership role (e.g., elders)"
|Accountable leadership||Formal leader or informal leader|
|Conditions for general resilience||Formal or Informal|
|Indonesian District Governments||Does this refer to inter or intra group? Individual district governments have formal leaders, but there is no leader representing all district governments.|
|"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)||Formal leader||The government is led by an elected president.|
|"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)||Formal leader||Suharto was a strong formal leader of the government.|
|Large Extractive Industries in Indonesia||No leader||Some sub parts of this group had leadership at some point (i.e. Bob Hasan and the Apkindo group of timber companies - see Barr 1998). However this has been the exception to the rule - there is no broader coordination of extractive industries, and even Hasan's leadership of the timber companies was relatively short lived (basically from the late 1980s-1998).|
|Indonesian Local entrepreneurs||No leader||There is no leadership for this group.|
|Ozone Nation States||No leader|
|Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers||No leader||At the beginning of the Montreal Protocol, DuPont emerged as an informal leader. However, at present, there are no leaders.|
|ICPR nations (1976-1986)||Informal leader||The Netherlands promoted the inception of the ICPR, and the approval of the Chemical Convention.|
|Galapagos Artisan Fishermen||Formal leader||There is an elected president for each of the four fishing cooperatives, one of which represents the fishing sector on the PMB.|
|Civil society organizations in Indonesia||?|
|ICCAT Western Members||No leader|
|ICCAT Eastern Members||No leader||There is no formal or informal leader of the group.|
|ICCAT Contracting Parties||No leader||There is no formal or informal leader|
|GBR recreational fishers||Informal leader||The sports fishing groups have leaders. These leaders are voted in but the vast majority of recreational fishers are not part of these groups.|
|GBR fisheries managers||Formal leader||Organisational leader|
|GBR commercial fishers||Informal leader||Some members join the QSIA which has a few formal representatives promoting fisher interests. However, not all commercial fishing sectors join this group. There isn't a formal leader of the sector as a whole.|
|Ozone Secretariat||Formal leader||The Secretariat has a permanent staff based at the United Nations Environment Programme Office in Nairobi, Kenya.|
|Indonesian "Adat" Communities||Informal leader||As with coordination, this question can be taken to refer to leadership at both the intra-group level (within each adat community) and the inter-group (between adat communities) level. Individual adat communities and inter-community adat movements have informal leadership, but there is also formal leadership of the adat through AMAN (Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara, the Alliance of Indigenous People of the Archipelago).|
|ICPR nations (1986-2000)||Informal leader||See "ICPR Nations (1987-1986)"|
|Rhine chemical firms|
|Rhine agricultural sector|
|GBR government co-managers||Formal leader||Both agencies have formal Directors.|
|Svalbard Resource Managers||The Governor of Svalbard has the ultimate authority (Svalbard Environmental Protection Act 2001), and is assisted by the Coast Guard for monitoring fisheries & travel compliance, and the Polar Institute for monitoring environmental components.|
|Wakatobi Bajau fishers||Formal leader||All Bajau villages have chiefs, who are elected. There are also hamlet chiefs who are also elected. Chiefs are well respected (Interview with Chui-Ling Tam, June 2015).|
|Raja Ampat Tourism||["Formal leader"]||Tourism department of Raja Ampat government|
|NWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship||["Formal leader"]||co-trustees|
|Riparian Nations (1976-1986)|
|Wakatobi managers||["Formal leader"]||Ultimately the central government|
|GMR managers||Formal leader||Formal, elected leaders/representatives for each of the sectors on the PMB formal leader of the IMA is the Minister of Environment.|
|NWHI Researchers||No leader||Because these are different groups of researchers, there is no one leader for this actor group.|
|CORALINA||["Formal leader"]||There is a director of the regional office.|
|Raja Ampat Artisanal Fishers||["Formal leader"]||VIllages that practice sasi management (traditional management practices) have village leaders, traditional leaders, and religious leaders. They all play a role in controlling use and access to marine resources and are elected by popular vote. There is one village leader (kepala kampung) who serves as the link between the higher local level government officials and central Raja Ampat government (Mcleod, 2009)|
|Raja Ampat Managers||["Formal leader"]||There is a head of the overall MPA network, and each local level MPA has its own head.|
|Macquarie Island Managers||Formal leader||Formal leaders are defined by legislation and management plans; and hold authority over the Marine Park and Nature Reserve, respectively.|
|Charles Darwin Foundation||CDF is managed by an executive director who is appointed by a board.|
|Galapagos Tourism Sector||Formal leader|
|National Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA||||Project and goal leads are identified by position. The national office has authority over regional offices, however, regional offices have a Superintendent and each goal has a specified coordinator. An advisory council assumes leadership for interested stakeholders. The Secretary of Commerce has overall authority on all sanctuary activities.|
|Community D||["Formal leader"]|
|Seaflower artisanal fishers||["Formal leader"]||Fishing cooperatives have elected leaders|
|Community H||["Formal leader"]|
|Community C||["Formal leader"]|
|California Sanctuary Recreational Users||["No leader"]||Recreational user companies may have an owner, but there is no sole recreational user leader.|
|California Groundfish Fishermen||["Informal leader"]||The Fishermen’s Marketing Association has a board of directors with a Monterey representative, but the leaders typically are the most outspoken and involved individuals.|
|Community A||["Formal leader"]|
|Community B||["Formal leader"]|
|California State and Federal Fisheries Agencies||||The Pacific Fishery Management Council retains leadership over the other teams (e.g. habitat team, budget team, management team, advisory team) and the council has a Chair and a Vice-Chair. The PFMC groundfish management team has an official Chair and Vice-Chair. The Secretary of Commerce has overall authority over this group's actions.|
|California Academic Researchers||||Various projects have various leaders, typically a principal investigator (PI). PIs can be searched here: http://sanctuarysimon.org/regional_sections/other/network_partners.php|
|Australian Fisheries Management Authority||["Formal leader"]||The Australian Fisheries Management Authority is a government agency with a formal bureaucratic structure.|
|Svalbard Tourism||AECO has formal leadership structure. There is an Executive Director, along with several elected committees.|
|Community F||["Formal leader"]|
|Community E||["Formal leader"]|
|Svalbard Shrimp Fishers||No leader|
|Community G||["Formal leader"]|
|Galapagos Charles Darwin Foundation||Formal leader||Formal - CDF is managed by an executive director who is appointed by a board.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks||["Formal leader"]||The holder of the office of the Director of National Parks is appointed by the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia.|
|Cenderwasih managers||["Formal leader"]||Ultimately the central government|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers||["Formal leader", "Informal leader"]||There is no formal leader of the commercial fishing sector as a whole. However, some commercial fishers are members of CFA and WFSA which has formal, elected representatives that promote fisher interests, although, not all commercial fishers join these groups.|
|Australian Antarctic Division||["Formal leader"]||The AAD has a formal director that overseas the entire Division. They also have a head Manager for each of their Branches under the Division.|
|Cenderwasih fishers||["Formal leader"]||Villages have elected leaders and head of tribes (kepala suku)|
|Australian Toothfish Fishers||["Informal leader"]||There is some informal leadership through COLTO, particularly though the chairman who heavily lobbies on behalf of COLTO and all legal toothfish operations. The chairman invests his time heavily in traveling to meetings, engaging with industry, NGOs, scientists and others to promote the image of sustainable legal toothfish operators (See e.g., .|
|New Zealand Fishery Managers||["", "Formal leader"]||Deepwater Manager has a staff of 5. Formal leader.|
|Patagonian Squid Trawlers||[""]||Formal FIFCA board with chair and vice-chair. Holds weight. Leader rotates. No informal leader|
|Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Managers||["", "Formal leader"]||Formal: Management has a hierarchal structure, but also everyone has their own responsibilities. Small team. No informal leader.|
|Association of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in Brazil||["", "Formal leader"]|
|Lombok aquaculture farmers||["", "Formal leader"]||Formal leaders are need to from formal groups and apply for subsidy aid, but in leadership is not strong.|
|Indonesian Institute of Sciences - LIPI||Not Applicable|
|Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio)||[""]|
|California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Managers||[""]||Formal: Senior Environmental Scientists are leaders|
|Gili EcoTrust on Gili Trawangan||["", "Formal leader"]|
|Brazilian Institute of the Environment & Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA)||Missing|
|Isla Caballo AMPR Costa Rica||["", "Formal leader"]|
|Paquera-Tambor AMPR Costa Rica||["", "Formal leader"]|
|SCUBA diving businesses on Gili Trawangan||["", "Informal leader"]||Some businesses are organized through GIDA|
|Gili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)||["", "Formal leader"]|
|New Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers||[""]||Formal: Deepwater Secretariat – responsible for coordination, developing options, participating in process, technological advice. Deepwater has a board and same leader has been in it for a while.|
|Palito-Montero AMPR Costa Rica||["", "Formal leader"]|
|Secretary of State for the Environment of Pará (SEMA) in Brazil||Missing|
|California market squid fishermen||[""]||Formal: Senior members tend to carry a lot of weight, but official representatives sit on the Fish and Wildlife advisory panel as a spokesperson. The California Wetfish Producers Association has a board of directors and an executive committee. Informal: Senior members carry weight with others|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.