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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Components

Each SESMAD case is constituted by a set of components, of which there are three types. These are listed here. Components are also divided into subtypes (e.g. natural resource systems) and roles (e.g. commons users) as described in the database guide.

Governance system: A set of institutional arrangements (such as rules, policies, and governance activities) that are used by one or more actor groups to interact with and govern an environmental commons. Examples include the Montreal Protocol regime, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act, and the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas.

Actor group: A group of actors, i.e. of individuals, organizations or nations that has developed a set of institutional arrangements in order to directly or indirectly interact an environmental commons. In our analysis we include groups whose members actually interact with each other (e.g. a particular management agency) as well as groups whose members may not interact very often if at all (e.g. fishermen who catch Bluefin tuna in the Atlantic Ocean).

Environmental commons: An environmental phenomenon that is associated with the provision of important benefits to certain actor groups, and the use or production of which is also associated with negative extraction or emission-based externalities. An environmental commons is the subject of governance for any case in the SESMAD project.

 

NameDescriptionTypeSubtypeSectorCases

Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan

Implemented by the Pacific Fisheries Management Council (federal) which shares jurisdiction of these fisheries with the California Fish and Wildlife (state). Last updated May 2014. First implemented 1982.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)

Indonesia's government in the "new order" period, 1965-1998, was highly centralized under President Suharto. The government included the president & the military (which he was closely associated with as a former general), as well as the forest department and the provincial governments which were essentially implementing agencies for the dictatorship

Actor

Government Agency

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-1998

This is the governance system for Indonesia's forest under the Suharto dictatorship (the "new order") from 1965-1998

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)

After the fall of Suharto, the Indonesian central government was substantially reorganized, under an elected legislature (since 1999) and president (elected since 2004) & a more effective court system. The importance of the military in government was substantially curtailed. Finally, there was also decentralization of previously centralized patronage networks and the inclusion of new elites that had been excluded from Suharto's regime.

Actor

Government Agency

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-2012

After the fall of Suharto, forest governance in Indonesia changed substantially. This variable refers to this new, changed forest governance system.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)

The Nototodarus gouldi (Gould’s Flying Squid) and Nototodarus sloanii (Wellington Flying Squid) species of arrow squid are very similar biologically, and are managed as one species.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

New Zealand squid

Australian Antarctic Division

The Australian Antarctic Division is a division of the Australian Government's Department of the Environment. They are responsible for advancing Australia's strategic, scientific, environmental and economic interests in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean by protecting, administering and researching the region. This includes their Territories at Heard and McDonald Islands and Macquarie Islands.

Actor

Government Agency

Marine protected areas

Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve

Australian Fisheries Management Authority

The Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) is responsible for the design and implementation of policies regarding the use of fisheries resources in Australian territorial waters and colloborates with international counterparts to implement agreements.

Actor

Government Agency

Marine protected areas

Macquarie Island Marine Park, Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve

Australian Toothfish Fishers

This refers to fishers that harvest toothfish resources in Australian territorial waters; or are subject to Australian regulations.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Macquarie Island Marine Park, Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve

CORALINA

Government agency in charge of managing the Safflower MPA

Actor

Local Government

Marine protected areas

Seaflower MPA

California Academic Researchers

Non-governmental researchers focused on studies within the sanctuaries. Most of these researchers are involved in the SIMoN program, the Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network. SIMoN is an integrated, long-term program that takes an ecosystem approach to identify and understand changes in each of the three sanctuaries. It provides resource managers with the information needed for effective decision-making and integrates ongoing efforts at the over 30 regional marine research institutions.

Actor

Research Community

Scientific Research and Conservation

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan

The California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan has been in effect since 2005, and includes a variety of rules and regulations specific to California's market squid fishery.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

California squid

California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Managers

Managers within the state agency focused on market squid

Actor

Government Agency

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

California squid

California Groundfish Fishermen

Nearshore and Offshore ground fish fishermen targeting California stocks

Actor

Group of Local Resource User Groups

Marine protected areas

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

California Groundfish Habitat

As designated by the ground fish regions, identified by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife

Environmental Common

Natural Resource System

Marine protected areas

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

California Humpback Whale

MPA Study migrating species

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health

From high tide to low tide, health of the rocky intertidal along shorelines of California and offshore islands.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource System

Marine protected areas

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

California Sanctuary Recreational Users

Those who use the sanctuary for recreational purposes, including but not limited to: Scuba diving, sailing and boating, kayaking, whale watching. California ranks second only to Florida in the number of participants in coastal recreation (17.6 million participants). While California also ranks second to Florida in the percent of its population that participates in marine recreation (10.7% for Florida, 8.7 % for California), its large population places California first in the nation in the number of residents that participate in marine recreation annually (12.2 million) (Pendleton and Rooke 2010).

Actor

Group of Local Resource User Groups

Marine protected areas

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

California State and Federal Fisheries Agencies

The California Fish and Wildlife Department and the Pacific Fishery Management Council are a state and a federal body which have joint jurisdiction over the groundfish fisheries in the central California national marine sanctuaries.

Actor

Government Agency

Fisheries (Stock-specific), Marine protected areas

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

California market squid (Loligo opalescens)

California market squid (Loligo opalescens) is found from Baja Mexico to Alaska, USA yet is managed by separate state departments.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

California squid

California market squid fishermen

Fishermen with licenses to fish California market squid

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

California squid

Cenderwasih coral cover

We use coral cover as a proxy for coral reef biodiversity, which in turn is a proxy for the overall health of biodiversity of Cenderwasih National Park

Environmental Common

Natural Resource System

Marine protected areas

Cenderwasih National Park

Cenderwasih fishers

Artisanal fishers located on the coast of Cenderwasih Bay fishing for subsistence

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Marine protected areas

Cenderwasih National Park

Cenderwasih governance system

Cendrawasih is gazetted as a nationally protected area under the Park Authority of the Ministry of Forestry (National Act No. 5 1990), it is owned and managed by the national government for the traditional use of communities and biodiversity conservation. In 2002, following a special autonomy law granted for Papua the right to resource management moved from national to local responsibility. The park's area almost entirely overlaps with the area administered under the district of Wondama and a large part of the district of Nabire of West Papua Province.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Cenderwasih National Park

Cenderwasih green turtle

Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) used as a proxy for the impact of MPAs on migratory species

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Cenderwasih National Park

Cenderwasih managers

Managers of Cenderwasih National Park - local government (Wodama Bay Regency and Nabire Regency), with support from WWF-Indonesia and State University of Papua

Actor

Group of Local Governments

Marine protected areas

Cenderwasih National Park

Cenderwasih target fish

Targeted reef fish include wrasse, grouper, snapper, parrotfish and surgeonfish.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Scientific Research and Conservation, Marine protected areas

Cenderwasih National Park

Charles Darwin Foundation

Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) was created in 1959. It’s mission is “to provide knowledge and assistance through scientific research and complementary action to ensure the conservation of the environment and biodiversity in the Galapagos Archipelago.” The CDF is the main scientific organisation in the Galapagos. Initially CDF was a member of the PMB, but it relinquished this role (in ~2008) and now has purely an advisory role. It has been a critical voice for science-based policy, especially with regard to fisheries, in the Galapagos.

Actor

Research Community

Scientific Research and Conservation

Civil society organizations in Indonesia

This group includes a wide variety of civil society organizations, including national and international NGOs, which have been engaged in political activities related to Indonesian forest governance, particularly since the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998. Since then, civil society has experimented a tremendous growth (Antlov et al 2005)

Actor

NGO

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

Community A

This refers to members of Community A that harvest fish resources from the LMMA

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Community A (Fiji fisheries)

Community A Fish Resources

This refers to fish resources found within the PHC and LMMA of Community A

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Community A (Fiji fisheries)

Community A Governance System

This refers to the governance systems implemented by Community A.

Governance System

Informal Governance System

Community A (Fiji fisheries)

Community B

This refers to actors from Community B that harvest fisheries resources from the LMMA

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Community B (Fiji Fisheries)

Community B Fish Resources

This refers to fisheries resources found within the PHC of Community B

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Community B (Fiji Fisheries)

Community B Governance System

This refers to the governance system implemented by Community B.

Governance System

Informal Governance System

Community B (Fiji Fisheries)

Community C

This refers to fishers from Community C that harvest resources from the LMMA.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Community C (Fiji Fisheries)

Community C Fish Resources

This refers to fisheries resources found within the LMMA and PHC of Community C

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Community C (Fiji Fisheries)

Community C Governance System

This refers to the governance system implemented by Community C for the use of fish resources within the LMMA.

Governance System

Informal Governance System

Community C (Fiji Fisheries)

Community D

This refers to fishers from Community D that harvest resources from the LMMA.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Community D (Fiji Fisheries)

Community D Fish Resources

This refers to fish within the LMMA of Community D

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Community D (Fiji Fisheries)

Community D Governance System

This refers to the rules, regulations and processes used to govern fish resources within the LMMA of Community D.

Governance System

Informal Governance System

Community D (Fiji Fisheries)

Community E

This refers to fishers from Community E that harvest fish resources from the LMMA. This group is comprised of three villages.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Community E (Fiji Fisheries)

Community E Fish Resources

This refers to fish resources found within the locally managed marine area of Community E

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Community E (Fiji Fisheries)

Community E Governance System

This refers to the rules and regulations used to govern the use of fish resources within the LMMA of Community E.

Governance System

Informal Governance System

Community E (Fiji Fisheries)

Community F

This refers to the community of fishers that harvest fish resources within the LMMA of Community F

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Community F (Fiji Fisheries)

Community F Fish Resources

This refers to fish resources found within the LMMA of community F.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Community F (Fiji Fisheries)

Community F Governance System

This refers to system of rules, regulations and processes used to govern the use of fish resources within the LMMA of community F.

Governance System

Informal Governance System

Community F (Fiji Fisheries)

Community G

This refers to the community of resource users that harvest resources within the LMMA of Community G.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Community G (Fiji Fisheries)

Community G Fish Resources

This refers to fisheries resources found within the LMMA of Community G

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Community G (Fiji Fisheries)

Community G Governance System

This refers to the rules, regulations and processes used to govern fisheries resources within the LMMA of Community G.

Governance System

Informal Governance System

Community G (Fiji Fisheries)

Community H

This refers to the actors that harvest resources within the LMMA of Community H.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Community H (Fiji Fisheries)

Community H Fish Resources

This refers to fish resources found within the LMMA of Community H.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Community H (Fiji Fisheries)

Community H Governance System

This refers to the system of rules, regulations and processes used to govern fish resources within the LMMA of community H

Governance System

Informal Governance System

Community H (Fiji Fisheries)

Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna are a subpopulation of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna that spawn in the Mediterranean

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)

Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Managers

Management is about 28 people for all FIG, includes harbor master, economists, fishery scientists, and observers

Actor

Government Agency

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Falkland Islands squid

Forests in Indonesia

This environmental commons consists of all of the forests in the country of Indonesia.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource System

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Benthos

Benthic biodiversity is used as a proxy for ecosystem health of the Great Australian Bight Marine Park (Commonwealth Waters) (GABMP CW). The Benthic Protection Zone (BPZ) of the GABMP (CW) was proclaimed in 1998 to preserve a representative sample of the benthic flora and fauna and sediments (Director of National Parks 1999; Director of National Parks 2005). The BPZ is a 20 nautical mile wide strip orientated north to south and extends 3 nautical miles from the coast to the edge of Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone (200 nautical miles offshore). Within the zone, benthic assemblages are protected from demersal trawling and other potentially destructive human activities. There was a lack of information on the benthic communities of the GAB region at the time of the establishment of the GABMP (CW) and the location of the BPZ was not based on quantitative ecological data.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource System

Marine protected areas

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers

The fisheries operating in the Great Australian Bight Marine Park (Commonwealth Waters) are: Gillnet Hook and Trap Fishery, Small Pelagic Fishery, Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery, Southern and Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery, Skipjack Tuna Fishery, and the Southern Squid Jig Fishery. The Gillnet Hook and Trap Fishery and the Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery are the two main fisheries that operate in the GABMP(CW). The Great Australian Bight (GAB) region produces 25% of Australia's seafood production by value, and supports the country's largest commercial fishery by volume (http://oilandgasreview.com.au/word/qa-research-director-of-the-great-australian-bight-research-program-dr-steve-lapidge/).

Actor

Group of Local Resource User Groups

Marine protected areas

Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks

The Director of National Parks is a corporation established under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act 1999, with the principal function of managing the Commonwealth reserves that are established under the Act. The corporation is constituted by the person appointed to the office named the Director of National Parks. The Director of National Parks is responsible under the EPBC Act for the administration, management and control of Commonwealth reserves and conservation zones. The Director is assisted in performing this function by the staff of Parks Australia (a division of the Department of the Environment formally a division of the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities). The Director is responsible to the Minister of the Environment for the administration of the EPBC Act.

Actor

Corporation

Marine protected areas

Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012

The governance system for the GABMP has been coded as the management plans (the first from 2000 – 2005, and the second, from 2005 – 2012). Commercial fishing (excluding demersal trawling) and recreational fishing are allowed within the GABMR. However, during May 1 and October 31, which is the southern right whales calving period in the area, non-commercial vessel access and all activities (scuba, fishing, etc) are prohibited in the Marine Mammal Protection Zone, including where it overlaps with the Benthic Protection Zone

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion

Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) is an endemic species that feeds on benthic dwelling fish, cephalopods, crustaceans and sharks - and as a higher trophic level predator is used in this case as a proxy for ecosystem health.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna

Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT; Thunnus maccoyii) is a migratory and valuable pelagic fish, and used as the fisheries proxy for this case. Juvenile Southern Bluefin Tuna are targeted in the Great Australian Bight by Australian purse seine fishing vessels, and towed to Port Lincoln where they are transferred to grow-out cages and fed intensively for 6–8 months before being harvested and exported to Japan. At the time of capture, these juvenile fish are predominantly in the two to three year age class, with small numbers of one and four year old fish (Phillips et al. 2009). More than 95% of Australia’s total catch of the species is taken by this method (TSSC 2010aw). The species has undergone very severe reduction in numbers as a result of heavy fishing pressure throughout its range. The Southern Bluefin Tuna is one of the most highly valued fish species for sashimi, especially in Japan. The SBT fishery is managed by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) under the Fisheries Management Act (1991) and the SBT Fishery Management Plan Amendment Plan (2004).

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)

GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale

Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) used as a proxy for the impact of MPAs on migratory species. Southern right whales migrate annually through the Great Australian Bight Region during the winter and spring, and the MPA is an important aggregation and calving site. Whaling in the 1700s drastically reduced Southern Right Whale numbers, and although still scarce relative to historical abundance, it is not considered under threat at the hemispheric level and is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN RedList. The most recent population estimate for the Australian population is ~3,500 individuals (Bannister 2010). They are listed as endangered under the threatened species category of the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and as Vulnerable under the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)

GBR Green Turtle

The green turtle acts as a proxy for migratory species in the GBR. There are numerous nesting beaches throughout the GBR, including a few beaches with such high numbers of nesting green turtles that these areas are considered globally important.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Scientific Research and Conservation, Marine protected areas, Tourism

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999

The 1975 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) Act established the marine park and the park’s authority (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, GBRMPA). The Act prohibited mining on the reef, enabled the planning and implementation of zones to differentiate uses of the park, such as fishing and tourism, and authorised GBRMPA to design a system of other permissions to regulate, enforce, sanction, and monitor access and use of the park including harvesting, shipping, and research (http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-us/legislation-regulations-and-policies/legislation). A formal co-management agreement was signed between Federal and State government in Australia (1979), which effectively enabled the joint management of the GBRMP by GBRMPA (a federal agency) and the Queensland state (Queensland Parks and Wildlife and Queensland Fisheries). From 1999 a systematic conservation planning approach called the Representative Areas Programme was undertaken to identify and implement a larger system of no-take zones that represented the diversity of bioregions and habitats encompassed in the GBRMP. It was implemented in 2004, and the proportion of no-take areas changed from about 5% to 33%.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current

The 1975 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) Act established the marine park and the park’s authority (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, GBRMPA). From 1999 a systematic conservation planning approach called the Representative Areas Programme was undertaken to identify and implement a larger system of no-take zones that represented the diversity of bioregions and habitats encompassed in the GBRMP. It was implemented in 2004, and the proportion of no-take areas changed from about 5% to 33%. This snapshot reports on the characteristics of the governance system after the re-zoning until current

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

GBR commercial fishers

Commercial fishing sectors. Primarily considering trawl, line and net fishing sectors.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Marine protected areas

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

GBR coral cover

We use coral cover as a proxy for coral reef biodiversity, which in turn is a proxy for the overall health of biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef system.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource System

Marine protected areas

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

GBR fisheries managers

Queensland Fisheries, the state agency responsible for fisheries management

Actor

Government Agency

Marine protected areas

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

GBR government co-managers

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP)managers and Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Together they co-manage the GBRMP.

Actor

Government Agency

Marine protected areas

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

GBR recreational fishers

Recreational fishers who fish in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Fisheries (Stock-specific), Marine protected areas

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

GBR target fish

Fish species targeted by GBR commercial and recreational fishers

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Fisheries (Stock-specific), Marine protected areas

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

GMR governance system 1998-current

This is the governance system which determines the use of resources within the Galapagos Marine Reserve. The Galapagos Special Law (1998) created the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR), and the Galapagos Marine Reserve Management Plan (1999) determines the use of resources within the reserve. Galapagos Special Law (GSL) implemented severe restrictions to immigration, required a new inspection and quarantine system to mitigate invasive species, and enhanced ecosystem protection through a new institutional framework. The system is governed by a bottom-up, two-tier participatory management regime which gives local stakeholders significant decision making power. Official management responsibilities are overseen by the Galapagos National Park Service (GNPS) and the Ecuadoran Navy.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

GMR managers

Decisions regarding use of resources within the GMR are made by representatives of local stakeholders on the Participatory Management Board (PMB). Decisions made (by consensus) by the PMB are reviewed, and usually ratified, by the Interinstitutional Management Authority (IMA), the executive decision making body of the GMR and responsible for creating legally binding resolutions. If consensus is not reached by the PMB, the IMA can decide by majority vote.

Actor

Group of Local Governments

Marine protected areas

Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)

Galapagos Artisan Fishermen

Fishing within the Galapagos Marine Reserve is restricted to permanent residents of the Galapagos who are affiliated with one of four registered fishing cooperatives. They are not 'classic artisanal fishermen' as they do not have a long-history with the area or occupation, and can be better described as 'economic opportunists' arriving when the fishing was good and moving into alternatives when it's bad.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Marine protected areas

Galapagos Marine Reserve, Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)

Galapagos Charles Darwin Foundation

Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) was created in 1959. It’s mission is “to provide knowledge and assistance through scientific research and complementary action to ensure the conservation of the environment and biodiversity in the Galapagos Archipelago.” The CDF is the main scientific organisation in the Galapagos. Initially CDF was a member of the PMB, but it relinquished this role (in ~2008) and now has purely an advisory role. It has been a critical voice for science-based policy, especially with regard to fisheries, in the Galapagos.

Actor

NGO

Scientific Research and Conservation, Marine protected areas

Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)

Galapagos Governance System 1998-current

This is the governance system which determines the use of resources within the Galapagos Marine Reserve. The Galapagos Special Law (1998) created the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR), and the Galapagos Marine Reserve Management Plan (1999) determines the use of resources within the reserve. Galapagos Special Law (GSL) implemented severe restrictions to immigration, required a new inspection and quarantine system to mitigate invasive species, and enhanced ecosystem protection through a new institutional framework. The system is governed by a bottom-up, two-tier participatory management regime which gives local stakeholders significant decision making power. Official management responsibilities are overseen by the Galapagos National Park Service (GNPS) and the Ecuadoran Navy.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)

Galapagos Green Turtle

Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) used as a proxy for the impact of MPAs on migratory species. The green turtle Chelonia mydas is the only species of sea turtle nesting in the Galapagos Islands and is found on nearly all of the islands, except Rábida, Genovesa, Pinzón and Fernandina. At least 107 beaches are potential nesting sites for this species; however, the densest nesting areas are found on Santa Cruz, Baltra and Isabela Islands

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)

Galapagos Sea Cucumber

Sea cucumber (Isostichopus fuscus) inhabits rocky reefs in shallow coastal waters (2 - 40m depth) from the Gulf of California to Ecuador, and around many Pacific islands including the Galapagos.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Galapagos Marine Reserve, Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)

Galapagos Sharks

The Galapagos Marine Reserve is home to at least 50 species of sharks and rays. Although these species are protected in the marine reserve, they are vulnerable to industrial fishing outside the protected waters, to unintentional bycatch by local fishers inside the reserve, and to illegal fishing. We are using sharks in this case as a proxy for biodiversity/ecosystem health.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Scientific Research and Conservation, Marine protected areas

Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)

Galapagos Tourism Sector

Tourism is an important component of the Galapagos system - it generates $418M annually, of which an estimated $63M enters the local economy (equal to 51% of the Galapagos economy). It is also the main indirect driver of change in the socioecological system of Galapagos.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Marine protected areas, Tourism

Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)

Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan

The Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan, made under the Fisheries Management Act 1991, The HIMI Toothfish Fishery Management Plan provides the rules for setting catch limits, granting fishery quotas, and implementing other fisheries and environmental measures (e.g., gear restrictions, bycatch rules, etc.). The plan is implemented primarily by the AFMA, but in cooperation with the AAD and in accordance with CCAMLR Conservation Measures.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve

Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan

The HIMI Marine Reserve Management Plan, implemented by the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, lays out the objectives, rules and guidelines for managing the HIMI Marine Reserve. As of early 2014, the reserve was 65,000km-sq and managed as a Category Ia IUCN MPA (fully no-take).

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve

ICCAT Contracting Parties

Nation states that have ratified contracting status with ICCAT or acting as a non-contracting cooperative party.

Actor

Nation

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)

ICCAT Eastern Members

ICCAT contracting parties that obtain quota to appropriate from the Eastern Stock of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

Actor

Nation

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)

ICCAT Governance System

ICCAT governs appropriation of Eastern and Western stocks of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna by negotiating quotas among member states and coordinating various management activities and analysis.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)

ICCAT Western Members

ICCAT contracting parties that obtain quota to appropriate from the Western Stock of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. This group is dominated by Canada, the US and Japan.

Actor

Nation

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)

ICPR nations (1976-1986)

Nations with veto power in the ICPR, which are also riparian countries of the Rhine

Actor

Nation

Fresh Water Pollution

International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)

ICPR nations (1986-2000)

ICPR members (after the signature of the Rhine Action Plan; the members are the same but some of the group's properties changed)

Actor

Nation

Fresh Water Pollution

Indonesian "Adat" Communities

Adat refers to systems of customary law for different ethnic groups in Indonesia, which is often considered to be one of the three major elements of legal plurality in Indonesia, together with national law and Islamic law (Bowen 2003, Burns 2004). It is both (1) “a complex of rights and obligations” tying together history, land, and law in a specifically Indonesian way; and (2) a formulation of an ideal society (Davidson and Henley 2007). There are different adats depending on these different ethnic groups that use it: adat Sunda, adat Jawa, adat Aceh, adat Minagkabau, adat Sulawesi, etc. (Mutaquin 2012). This customary system has achieved formal recognition in the country, for instance, in agrarian and municipal law (ibid). The Adat communities are the communities of people (primarily indigenous and on outlying islands) who follow customary law. In the Reformasi (post-Suharto) period, adat law has gained a renewed interest and recognition among scholars and politicians, wleading some to speak of an "adat revivalism" (Davidson and Henley 2007)

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

Indonesian District Governments

In Indonesia, Districts are the administrative unit below provinces. After the fall of Suharto in 1998, substantial power over forest decision-making was devolved to the district level.

Actor

Local Government

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

Indonesian Local entrepreneurs

This group consists of small-scale politicians and business people in Indonesia who are not at the level of large extractive industries (which operate at the national level), but operate at the district level, and became particularly important in forests in the post-Suharto (1998) era.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System

Original Management Plans 1981: Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Management Plan 1989: Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Management Plan 1992: Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Management Plan - Start of Coding Snapshot 2008: All Three Central West Coast Sanctuaries as part of Joint Management Plan Review 2015: Major Expansion

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

King Penguin

The King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is a subantarctic penguin that has breeding colonies throughout the subantarctic Islands, including on the Heard and McDonald Islands. King Penguins drastically declined during the 19th and beginning of 20th century (due to exploitation associated with the sealing industry) and have since been recovering. Most colonies grew rapidly between 1970 and 1990. They are a close relative of Emperor Penguins.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve

Large Extractive Industries in Indonesia

This actor group includes the timber industry, as well as mining industries and large plantation-based industries (oil palm, wood fiber plantations).

Actor

Corporation

Forests

Forests in Indonesia

Light Mantled Albatross

The light mantled albatross (Phoebetria palpebrata) is also known as the light mantled sooty albatross. They are a migratory species of birds that inhabit much of the circumpolar region. They are categorized as Near-Threatened by the IUCN due to concerns that the species may be declining from being incidentally caught on fisheries long-lines and being preyed upon by introduced predators. Despite IUCN listing, threats and population status remain poorly known. There are 19,000-24,000 estimated breeding pairs globally. They breed biennially with the major breeding grounds at the following islands: South Georgia (5000-7500), Kerguelen (3000-5000), Auckland (5000) and Campbell (1600). They also breed at Macquarie (1250) and Heard Island (200-500). (Source: See BirdLife Species Factsheet for Light-mantled albatross, 2014; ACAP species assessment for Light-mantled albatross, 2012).

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Macquarie Island Marine Park, Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve

Macquarie Island Managers

This group refers to the group of government agencies responsible for the design and implementation of the Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan (now part of the SE Network of Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network), and the Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan. This includes the Director of National Parks of Environment Australia, Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, and the Australian Antarctic Division

Actor

Government Agency

Marine protected areas

Macquarie Island Marine Park

Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan

This governance system refers to the rules and regulations used to govern activities in the Macquarie Island Marine Park. The park is governed in accordance with Macquarie Island Marine Park. It is now part of the Southwest Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network. The Macquarie Island Marine Park is located to the east of the island and includes waters between 3-200 nautical miles from shore. The central portion is a highly protected zone, with 2 habitat protection zones to the north and south. It is now part of the SE Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Macquarie Island Marine Park

Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan

The Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan governs activities on Macquarie Island as well as marine areas surrounding the island out to 3 nautical miles.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Macquarie Island Marine Park

Macquarie Island Royal Penguin

The Royal Penguin is a penguin species found only on Macquarie island and surrounding islets and is closely related to the Macaroni Penguin with it whom it sometimes (but rarely) interbreeds.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Macquarie Island Marine Park

Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan

The Toothfish fishery management plan governs appropriation of toothfish from waters surrounding Macquarie Island. Limited fishing takes place within the habitat/species protection zone of the Marine Reserve.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Macquarie Island Marine Park

Magnuson-Stevens Act

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty that governs the production and use of ozone depleting substances in nation states that are signatories. At present this includes all nations states recognized by the United Nations.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Air Pollution

Montreal Protocol

NWHI Green Turtle

The Hawaiian green turtle is genetically distinct from the other green sea turtle populations, nesting primarily in the French Frigate Shoals of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and feeding in the coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands. This species was in a steep decline as of the 1970s because of direct harvest of both turtles and eggs by humans. The population has grown steadily over the last thirty years after protection began in 1978.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument

NWHI Lobster Fishery

Spiny and slipper lobster fishery in the NWHI. The fishery began in 1976 and the landings peaked in 1983-1985 during which time it was Hawaii’s most valuable demersal fishery. CPUE steadily decline over the next decade. The fishery was closed in 2000 because of increasing uncertainty in population and stock assessment models. Since the closure of the fishery there has been no evidence of recovery of either species (O’Malley 2009, 2011).

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument

NWHI Monument Act 2006

In July 2006 President Bush signed Presidential Proclamation 8031 and created the monument. A 15 year management plan was produced in 2008. The mission of the Monument is "To forever protect and perpetuate ecosystem health and diversity and Native Hawaiian cultural significance of Papahānaumokuākea.”

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument

NWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship

The Monument is administered jointly by three co-trustees (NOAA, USFWS, and the State of Hawai’i). The Co-Trustees developed and signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) in 2006 to establish roles and responsibilities of coordinating bodies and mechanisms for managing the Monument. The day-to-day management of the Monument is overseen by a 7-member management board comprised of two sub-agencies of each Co-Trustee, plus the Office of Hawaiian Affairs.

Actor

Group of Local Governments

Marine protected areas

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument

NWHI Researchers

Scientists who study the NWHI (ecological and/or social). Includes international scientists from a variety of instiutions. Co-trustee agencies authorize permits for research. Since the NWHI has become completely no-take, researchers are the main 'user' of the MPA.

Actor

Research Community

Scientific Research and Conservation

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument

NWHI Trophic Density

density per trophic group is used as a proxy for ecosystem health. The reefs in the NWHI are among the few remaining large-scale, intact, predator-dominated reef ecosystems left in the world, with 54% of the total fish biomass in the NWHI consisting of apex predators (Friedlander & DeMartini 2002)

Environmental Common

Natural Resource System

Marine protected areas

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument

National Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA

Lead managers of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Federal agency, oversees 11 other national sanctuaries.

Actor

Government Agency

Marine protected areas

Central California National Marine Sanctuaries

New Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers

Both trawlers and jiggers targeting Arrow squid (Nototodarus spp.) within New Zealand waters

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

New Zealand squid

New Zealand Fishery Managers

Ministry of Fisheries within the New Zealand Government

Actor

Government Agency

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

New Zealand squid

New Zealand Quota Management System

The QMS (Quota Management System) was introduced in October 1986 and controls the overall catches for virtually all the main fish stocks found within New Zealand’s 200nm EEZ. In the QMS, a total catch limit is set at a sustainable level. Squid was introduced in 1987. The Fisheries Act of 1996 is another major law which amended the QMS, and which plays a role in this fishery.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

New Zealand squid

New Zealand Sea Lion

Phocarctos hookeri

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Ozone

Ozone is a compound consisting of three oxygen atoms that resides in the atmosphere forming the ozone layer which limits the incidence of harmful UV radiation on the Earth's surface

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Air Pollution

Montreal Protocol

Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers

This group is comprised of major industrial producers of ozone depleting substances including CFCs, HCFCs

Actor

Corporation

Air Pollution

Montreal Protocol

Ozone Depleting Substances

Ozone depleting substances include a wide range of anthropogenic compounds that are used for a variety of industrial production activities and consumer products. Most notable among these are CFCs. These compounds, to varying degrees cause the dissociation of ozone molecules in the atmosphere.

Environmental Common

Pollutant

Air Pollution

Montreal Protocol

Ozone Nation States

The group is comprised of all nation states recognized by the United Nations and a small number of other states (i.e. Cook Islands, Niue, Vatican). The EU is also a member of the group, but they are subsumed under the individual nations in this group.

Actor

Nation

Air Pollution

Montreal Protocol

Ozone Secretariat

The Ozone Secretariat is an administrative body located in Nairobi Kenya that is responsible for administering a variety of governance activities for ozone regulation including arranging meetings of the parties, representing the parties in other venues, monitoring, data collection and analysis.

Actor

Secretariat

Air Pollution

Montreal Protocol

Patagonian Squid Trawlers

Fishermen with licenses to fish for Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Falkland Islands squid

Patagonian Toothfish

Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) are a species of fish endemic to the Southern Hemisphere, largely found around subantarctic islands and the southern tip of South America (in general north of 60S). The Antarctic toothfish (D. mawsoni) is a separate species, found at higher latitudes around Antarctica (largely south of 60S). Both species are sold on the market as "Chilean sea bass." Commercial Patagonian toothfish fisheries exist off of the coast of Argentina and Chile and around most subantarctic islands, including the Falkland/Malvinas, Macquarie (AU EEZ), Heard and McDonald (AU EEZ), Kerguelen Island (FR EEZ), Crozet Island (FR EEZ), Prince Edward and Marion Islands (South Africa EEZ) and South Georgia.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Macquarie Island Marine Park, Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve

Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)

Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi) is also sometimes called Doryteuthis gahi or Loligo patagonica or Falkland calamari

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Falkland Islands squid

Pre-Montreal Protocol Ozone Governance

This governance system refers to national-level regulations and market factors that governed production of ozone depleting substances. At the international level these uncoordinated governance activities represent an informal governance system.

Governance System

Informal Governance System

Air Pollution

Montreal Protocol

Raja Ampat Artisanal Fishers

Local communities (generally traditional sea tenure holders) living around MPAs. Generally local people consider hemselves both fishers and farmers. Fish are caught using a variety of fishing gear, with hand line and gleaning are the most common. Fish targeted include reef fish – particularly wrasse, grouper, snapper, parrotfish and surgeonfish. Other important targets include pelagic species, sea cucumber and shellfish.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)

Raja Ampat Coral Cover

Coral cover is a measure of the ecosystem health. Raja Ampat is at the heart of the ‘Coral Triangle’, an area with the world’s highest coral reef biodiversity. The archipelago is estimated to harbor over 75% of the world’s coral species.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)

Raja Ampat Governance System

The Raja Ampat MPA is a network of 7 MPAs and is officially managed under the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. It was first declared in 2007 (although was not a large MPA by our definition at this stage: 8352km2), the boundaries were then extended in 2009, through a head-of-government decree (Peraturan Bupati No.5/2009) - fulfilling our size requirements >10,000km2. Government regulation 60/2007 states that these MPAs must be ‘managed as an integrated whole within a system’. This led to the formation of an organisation unit to manage the Raja Ampat MPAs: Technical Unit of the Marine and Fisheries Agency for the Raja Ampat Marine Protected Area. The MPA network is governed by the Raja Ampat Regency and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) with support from The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Conservation International (CI) and the COREMAP program. Draft management plans have been produced MPAs in the network that have national recognition, and zoning plans are close to completion for MPAs managed by the regency.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)

Raja Ampat Green Turtle

Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is used as a proxy for understanding the impact of MPAs on migratory species

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)

Raja Ampat Managers

Collaborative partnership between local communities, the Raja Ampat Regency government and International NGOs (CI and TNC).

Actor

Marine protected areas

Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)

Raja Ampat Reef Fish

Targeted reef fish include wrasse, grouper, snapper, parrotfish and surgeonfish.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)

Raja Ampat Tourism

Tourism is an important component in Raja Ampat - in 2008, the tourism economy was found to be valued at 1.6 million dollars (Bailey & Pitcher, 2008). Tourists pay an entry fee, which helps fund conservation activities in the MPAs.

Actor

Group of Corporations

Tourism

Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)

Rhine Action Plan

Improving the health of the ecosystem as a whole , the reintroduction of the salmon in the river and the control of non-point source pollution were the most salient of the new goals of the first edition of the Rhine Action Plan (RAP), (1987-2000).

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Fresh Water Pollution

International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)

Rhine Chemicals Convention

Convention for the Protection of the Rhine against Chemical Pollution, which came along with the Convention on the Protection of the Rhine against Pollution by Chlorides (altogether Bonn agreements)

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Fresh Water Pollution

International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)

Rhine Non-point source pollutants

Pollutants originating mostly from diffuse sources, like agriculture; representative substances are nitrogen and phosphorous

Environmental Common

Pollutant

Fresh Water Pollution

International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)

Rhine Point source pollutants

Heavy metals like Cadmium, Zinc and Lead that are mainly originated by the chemical industry

Environmental Common

Pollutant

Fresh Water Pollution

International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)

Rhine agricultural sector

Farmers and farming companies located within the Rhine's watershed and main source of some non-point source pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorous

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Fresh Water Pollution

International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)

Rhine chemical firms

Large, chemical firms; originally source of most of point source pollution in the form of heavy metals

Actor

Corporation

Fresh Water Pollution

International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)

Seaflower MPA Act 2005

Act that establishes the Seaflower MPA in 2005

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Seaflower MPA

Seaflower artisanal fishers

Artisanal fishers fishing within the Safflower MPA

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Marine protected areas

Seaflower MPA

Seaflower coral reefs

One of the three primary habitats

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Seaflower MPA

Seaflower groupers

One of the main commercial resources

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Seaflower MPA

Svalbard Beluga

The Beluga is a small-medium sized whale which also known as the white whale. It used to be a prime target for whaling because whales would often come close to the coasts and travel in pods.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Svalbard Environmental Protection Act

Outlines which types of activities are permitted on Svalbard and which are not. This Act affords the Governor discretionary powers to interpret the Act for individual cases.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Svalbard Nature Reserves

Svalbard Kittiwake

The black-legged kittiwake is a migratory species that disperses after breeding from coastal areas to the open ocean. It is a pelagic gull that is monitored on Svalbard because it obtains its food on the surface (in contrast to other sea birds) and hence functions as an indicator for this part of the marine ecosystem. The kittiwake comprises a large proportion of the seabirds, in terms of both biomass and food consumption, and is dispersed over the whole of Svalbard and the rest of the Arctic.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Svalbard Nature Reserves

Svalbard Polar Bear

A top predator which relies heavily on the marine environment used in this case as a proxy for ecosystem health

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Svalbard Nature Reserves

Svalbard Resource Managers

The key player of Resource Managers is the Governor of Svalbard, who is ultimately responsible for ensuring that Environmental Protection Act and the Treaty of Svalbard are being properly followed, and for enforcing regulations. The Governor is assisted in monitoring by the Coast Guard (for ensuring that people follow regulations) and the Polar Institute (for environmental monitoring).

Actor

Government Agency

Marine protected areas

Svalbard Nature Reserves

Svalbard Shrimp

Although cod is the most important fishery for Norway as a whole, there is little/no cod fishing within the Nature Reserves (ICES Report 2012, 2013). Coding focuses on shrimp (pandalus borealis), which is the most prevalent fishery around the waters of Svalbard.

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Fisheries (Stock-specific), Marine protected areas

Svalbard Nature Reserves

Svalbard Shrimp Fishers

Shrimp is the most prevalent fishery around the waters of Svalbard. States that are permitted to fish for shrimp in the Svalbard zone are Canada, the EU, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Russia and Norway.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Fisheries (Stock-specific), Marine protected areas

Svalbard Nature Reserves

Svalbard Tourism

Tourism is one of the main pillars of the Svalbard economy. Tourists come to participate in an array of outdoor activities and to experience the polar wilderness. Coding focuses on large, commercial tourism operators (specifically AECO - Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators), because an organized cruise is essentially the only way to visit the East Svalbard Nature Reserves. Although some private boats may visit the reserves, these numbers are very small in comparison to the organized tours (Governor of Svalbard 2013).

Actor

Group of Local Resource User Groups

Marine protected areas

Svalbard Nature Reserves

The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)

The British government established the Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ) in 1986. The zone was created to regulate foreign fishing vessels and to raise revenue for the Falkland Islands through fishing licenses. The zone extends from a central point in the Falkland Islands out to 150 nautical miles. The L. gahi fishery takes place only within this zone.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Falkland Islands squid

Wakatobi Bajau fishers

A socially-disctinct ethnic group in the WNP. Despite being a minority group, they account for about 50% of all fishers in the WNP. Traditional sea-nomads, with highly detailed awareness of spatiotemporal variability in many physical and biological aspects of the marine environment.

Actor

Local Resource User Group

Fisheries (Stock-specific), Marine protected areas

Wakatobi National Park

Wakatobi Green Turtle

Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) used as a proxy for the impact of MPAs on migratory species

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Wakatobi National Park

Wakatobi National Park 2008-current

The Wakatobi National Park is officially managed under the Ministry of Forestry (PHKA; National Act No. 5 1990). Governance is now a strategic partnership involving various alliances between TNC/WWF, the PHKA, the district government of Wakatobi and the tour operators. The main emphasis of the park's management is the eradication of destructive fishing and illegal marine resource use.

Governance System

Formal Governance System

Marine protected areas

Wakatobi National Park

Wakatobi coral cover

We use coral cover as a proxy for coral reef biodiversity, which in turn is a proxy for the overall health of biodiversity of the Wakatobi National Park

Environmental Common

Natural Resource System

Marine protected areas

Wakatobi National Park

Wakatobi fish spawning

Fish that have spawning aggregations that are protected by the MPA: Lutjanus bohar (red snapper), Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (brown-marbled grouper) and Plectropomus areolatus (square/tailed coral grouper).

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Marine protected areas

Wakatobi National Park

Wakatobi managers

Strategic partnership between TNC/WWF, PHKA (Gov: Ministry of Forestry), district government of Wakatobi, and the tour operators.

Actor

Marine protected areas

Wakatobi National Park

Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

Stocks of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna that spawn in the western Atlantic ocean

Environmental Common

Natural Resource Unit

Fisheries (Stock-specific)

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)

NameDescriptionTypeSubtypeSectorCases