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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow quickly does this actor group experience the effects of its own attempts to ameloriate the condition of this commons?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceFeedbacks between the ecological and social sub-systems inform ecological knowledge systems and adaptation responses (Gunderson and Holling, 2002). The costs and benefits that actors perceive from management are likely influenced by how fast resources respond to attempts to ameliorate impacts. Resource systems can respond in a linear or non-linear way to resource use and management. Even where systems respond in a linear way recovery may be slow where impacts are extreme and deeply embedded. Where systems respond in a non-linear way, hysteresis effects may be felt (Scheffer et al., 2003). This means that system recovery is delayed and impacts need to be reduced to a level much lower than those experienced when the system flipped into a degraded state.
Definition

"This variable describes how quickly this actor group experiences the effects of its own attempts to ameloriate the condition of, or trends in, this commons. High: Actor groups get immediate or nearly immediate feedback about their attempts to improve the condition of the commons. Low: Actor groups get very delayed feedback about their attempts to improve the condition of the commons. For example, reduction of ozone depleting substances starting in the late 1980s have not yet resulted in a reduction of the ozone hole, but are expected to show an effect in a several decades."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia Actor does not ameliorate
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia not clear
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia This actor group does not attempt to improve the conditions of the commons.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesHigh (3)Changes in the forest are immediately apparent to local forest users.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersMedium (2)The Humpback whale population has been increasing. Ship strikes are more immediate effect but population level changes are over years.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998) I don't think this actor group made any attempts to ameliorate.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesHigh (3)this actor group lives directly in the forest and can easily experience effects of its attempts to ameliorate condtiions.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012) 
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneurs Does not attempt to ameliorate
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAMissingNO DATA
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District Governments ? does this group actually ameloriate?
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Low (1)Management efforts appear to take considerable time to improve resource conditions, and may be driven by more stochastic processes.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Low (1)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersLow (1)Eastern stocks have experienced short periods of stability after peaking in the late 1970;s, amidst a general pattern of decline. A complete ban on harvesting may result in fairly rapid recovery (4-5 years), however, attempts that have been made to recover stocks have either failed or taken a long time to have an impact.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersHigh (3)Industrial producers rapidly experience the economic effects of reductions in ozone depleting substances, although these are somewhat offset by economic payoffs from substitutes. The environmental effects on ozone occur over a much longer period of time.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone SecretariatLow (1)The environmental effects of reductions in ODS take a very long time to appear
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersLow (1)Attempts to improve resource conditions over many years have not had an appreciable impact on the Western stock, suggesting that effects take a long time to emerge.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersLow (1)
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsMedium (2)This actor group does not experience the detrimental effects from water pollution as it does not use generally speaking the Rhine's water (quality) for its production process. That said, the effects are moderated by climatic events (rainfall) and sedimentation processes
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, is highly visible (if you are underwater to look at it) - broken, dead, or bleached corals. Depending on the extent of damage, recovery can range from a year to many years.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersMedium (2)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, is highly visible (if you are underwater to look at it) - broken, dead, or bleached corals. Depending on the extent of damage, recovery can range from a year to many years. Coded medium here because recovery takes a while.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, is highly visible (if you are underwater to look at it) - broken, dead, or bleached corals. Depending on the extent of damage, recovery can range from a year to many years.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States High (3)ODS emission reductions can be experienced rapidly given an appropriate monitoring regime.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersMedium (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Low (1)Regulatory attempts to improve resource stocks have not had an appreciable impact on resource conditions
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)Sea cucmbers take 3-5 years to reproduce and an appropiate size to catch. In theory sea cucmbers could recover well, but they have been fished to depletion and it is not yet known if densities are too low for them to reporduce and recover so at present there are no signs of recovery. (Hearn et al., 2005)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States High (3)Regulatory attempts to control ODS emissions can have a rapid impact on this commons (ODS emissions)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersMedium (2)Damage from blast fishing has been somewhat ameliorated, so they can see lower incidences of this, but actual recovery of the coral reef can range from a year to many years. Coded medium here because recovery takes a while.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersLow (1)The environmental effects of ozone depleting substances are experienced slowly as the chlorine in ODS interacts with ozone in the atmosphere.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)Long-lived and slow to reproduce
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersLow (1)Long-lived and slow to reproduce
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersMedium (2)Increase by a small amount year on year. Grouper and Snapper are relatively long-lived so replenishment is slightly slower than for other species.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)Sea cucumbers slow growing and low reproductive capacity, managers allow fishing to continue while densities are low, so attempts to set minimum density limits do not exhibit noticeable improvements.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Medium (2)Moderately quick to reproduce
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorLow (1)Long-lived and slow to reproduce
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAMedium (2)Rocky shore habitats tend to rebound quickly (within a year or within a few years) if protected.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Low (1)Turtles are long-lived and slow to reproduce
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Turtles are long-lived and slow to reproduce
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)No real effort by Bajau to ameliorate fish spawning. Grouper and Snapper are relatively long-lived so replenishment is slightly slower than for other species
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMedium (2)Damage to corals is highly visible underwater, e.g. broken coral from blast fishing, but recovery can range from a year to many years, depending on the extent of damage.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Low (1)Changes to trophic density can take a while to appear, but the NWHI remains a predator-dominated ecosystem.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)Most sharks are long-lived and slow to reproduce, they are also wide ranging and may spend considerable amounts of time outside of the GMR
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersMedium (2)Damage to corals is highly visible underwater, e.g. broken coral from blast fishing, but recovery can range from a year to many years, depending on the extent of damage.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersMissing
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersLow (1)Fisheries recovery and regeneration is relatively quick given good enforcement and compliance to spatial management and fisheries management. Full recovery can take between a decade and 25 yrs.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Turtles have slow reproduction rates and have long life spans.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersLow (1)Turtles are long-lived and slow to reproduce
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersMedium (2)Recovery of the coral reef can range from a year to many years. Coded medium here because recovery takes a while
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersMedium (2)Some improvements in biomass have been detected - coded as medium because some reef associated species such as Grouper and Snapper are relatively long-lived so replenishment is slightly slower than for other species
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesLow (1)Management efforts appear to take considerable time to improve resource conditions, mixed results on amelioration efforts.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationLow (1)Most sharks are long-lived and slow to reproduce, they are also wide ranging and may spend considerable amounts of time outside of the GMR
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersLow (1)Based on the trends following the ban on hunting in 1973, it takes a long time for the polar bear population to recover (Derocher et al 2005). Therefore, this is coded as low – managers get a delayed feedback about their management efforts.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAMedium (2)Some corals grow fast and can be quickly visible
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Medium (2)The southern right whale population has been increasing but southern right whales are slow to reproduce and have low regeneration rates.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenLow (1)Since these are slow growing species, often times it takes 15-40 years to feel the effects of any amelioration efforts. Amelioration efforts include helping to establish Essential Fish Habitats.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionMissing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersMissing
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersHigh (3)Since there is a weak stock recruitment relationship, attempts to ameliorate the commons are quick since usually it is to protect juveniles or spawning females. Spatial restrictions (in the form of areas temporally or permanently closed for fishing) may be used to prevent the fishing of dense schools of small juvenile squid during their offshore feeding migrations (Arkhipkin et al. 2013a).
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)Recovery takes years to decades if there is high compliance to fisheries regulations and MPA rules
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersMedium (2)Fisheries recovery and regeneration is relatively quick given good enforcement and compliance to spatial management and fisheries management.Full recovery can take between a decade and 25 yrs. Some stocks can recover quicker but full protection for an extended period is needed to achieve pre-exploitation stocks. Depending on the level of degradation corals can also show signs of recovery within years to decades.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersLow (1)Indirect amelioration efforts (e.g. picking up trash, monitoring, making sure they don't impede individual whales), but how quickly this helps is not clear.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationLow (1)Turtles are slow to reproduce - population changes take a long time to see
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersMedium (2)Rocky shore habitats tend to rebound quickly (within a year or within a few years) if protected. However, researchers do not necessarily set protection limits.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersMedium (2)Recovery of the coral reef can range from a year to many years. Coded medium here because recovery takes a while
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersLow (1)Since turtles are long-lived, slow reproducing species, changes in management strategies may take years before outcomes can be determined.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersLow (1)Since turtles are long-lived, slow reproducing species, changes in management strategies may take years before outcomes can be determined.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, is highly visible (if you are underwater to look at it) - broken, dead, or bleached corals. Depending on the extent of damage, recovery can range from a year to many years.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationLow (1)Sea cucumbers are fairly slow growing and broadcast spawners so need high densities to ensure fertilization. Fishing continued to extremely low levels, so noticeable improvements.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAMedium (2)The Humpback whale population has been increasing. Ship strike avoidance is more of a short term visible influence, while population level changes take a few years.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)Recovery takes years to decades if there is high compliance to fisheries regulations and MPA rules
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI ResearchersLow (1)Changes in trophic density can take a while to appear, but the NWHI remains a predator-dominated reef ecosystem
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersMedium (2)Grouper and Snapper are relatively long-lived so replenishment is slightly slower than for other species.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersMedium (2)Generational length of 12.9 years.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersMedium (2)Effects may not be observed until the following year (or maybe longer).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersMedium (2)coded as medium because some reef associated species such as Grouper and Snapper are relatively long-lived so replenishment is slightly slower than for other species
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)Migratory species that has undergone dramatic population declines
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Low (1)Migratory species that has undergone dramatic population declines
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersMedium (2)Fisheries recovery and regeneration is relatively quick given good enforcement and compliance to spatial management and fisheries management.Full recovery can take between a decade and 25 yrs. Some stocks can recover quicker but full protection for an extended period is needed to achieve pre-exploitation stocks.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery ManagersHigh (3)Have not really tried to ameliorate, but closing the fishery due to sea lion escape rates likely takes pressure off squid and so can quickly recover.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenHigh (3)Effects are felt next year.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersMedium (2)Effects can be seen next year, though habitat restoration could take many years.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Low (1)This species has a population breeding time of 17.6 months, which is slower than many other Pinniped species. Populations are small and genetically isolated. In the first two years of life, mortality is estimated at 40–50% for Australian Sea-lion pups (Higgins 1990).
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersHigh (3)Hasn't attempted amelioration. Due to Biology would likely be quickly.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersHigh (3)If fishermen send indicators to managers of conditions that require closing, impacts are felt within that or next season.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable