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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeText
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
QuestionHow is the MPA reducing threats to the migratory species being coded as a component in the MPA?
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ImportanceLarge-MPAs are assumed to provide benefits to migratory species but there is very little documented evidence for this (see Maxwell et al 2014 for background info). There are numerous threats to migratory species including: Resource competition, Bycatch, Habitat destruction, Debris, etc. Identifying threats to migratory species can help develop priority setting and a management framework.

Briefly note all ways in which the MPA reduces threats to the migratory species being coded as a component in this MPA.

Please include brief notes on the threats being targeted for reduction and what management measures are being used.


SectorsMarine protected areas

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999 
GBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentBy having established 33% of park in no-take areas
Wakatobi National Park 2008-currentProtection of key-life stages for green turtles - all nesting beaches protected and some sea-grass habitat protectedSea-turtles - nesting beaches protected (n=3) “Olive Ridley and Green turtles, especially those from Eastern Indonesia, find important nesting, foraging, and migratory grounds in Wakatobi” Quote from the following doc: http://www.coraltriangleinitiative.org/sites/default/files/resources/8_Geographic%20Priorities%20for%20Marine%20Biodiversity%20Conservation%20in%20Indonesia.pdf
NWHI Monument Act 2006Green turtlesMarine debris clean up invasive species elimination
Raja Ampat Governance System Shark sanctuary declared in 2010 - covers 46,000 km2 of waters around the Raja Ampat islands - to protect: dugongs, sharks, turtles and manta rays
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System tWhale migrations are monitored, individuals are tagged, shipping lanes are navigated to be placed in least-likely collision with migratory species, remote sensing and surveys are conducted to learn abundance and distribution patterns, the Sanctuary responds to distressed migratory species calls. The Sanctuary addresses wildlife disturbance through a mix of educational outreach, regulations, and enforcement. "The Watchable Wildlife program is a unique partnership of federal and state wildlife agencies and non-profit organizations working to educate the public and commercial operators about safe and responsible wildlife viewing practices."
Svalbard Environmental Protection ActHabitat Protection Harvesting/Hunting ProtectionThere is good protection of important breeding grounds - about 215 kittiwake colonies are known in Svalbard. All traffic is forbidden in bird sanctuaries between 15 May and 15 August. Environmental protection has priority over natural resource extraction, and tourism is managed and monitored. There is limited monitoring/baseline data for many of the migratory species known to be found in Svalbard. The Nature Reserves offer large, relative intact areas with habitat protection for numerous migratory species. Within the Nature Reserves, migratory bird species are also protected against disturbance and harvesting of any kind (including eggs). For whale species, Norwegian regulations prohibit hunting anywhere within Norwegian waters, and therefore any benefits from the Reserves may be limited to habitat protection. However, the regions within the Nature Reserves may receive considerable ‘de facto’ habitat protection since these areas are far from the main town of Longyearbyen and sea-ice sometimes makes travel difficult.
Seaflower MPA Act 2005MissingNO DATA
Galapagos Governance System 1998-currentMigratory species protected through ban on industrial fishing within the GMR, and international conventions. No specific management actions for migratory species.Whales (sei, humpback) Tuna Marine birds protected under ACAP – and international conventions that Ecuador subscribes to. Albatross. IUCN processes for red listed spec – gal penguin and cormorant. Upwelling bubble in equator. Sharks – large schooling hammerheads and whale shark come up from south and pregnant females up in Darwin – important behavioral aggregation/birthing points for some of these species. Sharks are migratory between Galapagos and Cocos – and several programmes looking at this
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanThreat reduction concentrates on preventing and limiting bycatch in the toothfish fishery and preserving foraging grounds for migratory species.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Protection of a key life-stage for the southern right whaleThe MMPZ in the GABMP (CW) is 3,875 km2 and provides regulations to allow southern right whales to calve undisturbed.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanSome protection of foraging grounds and protection (on land) of nesting sites.The MPA protects some seabird foraging grounds and most seabird nesting grounds on the islands (land-based protection is included in the MPA management plan). Note that most of the seabird protection measures are actually implemented by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority as seabird bycatch mitigation measures under the 2002 Heard and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan (measures are in agreement with CCAMLR seabird conservation measures).
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanNot Applicable
Cenderwasih governance system 
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in BrazilNot Applicable
Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA divingMissing
Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa RicaMissing