|Variable Component Type
|Institutions (learn about themes)
|How is the MPA reducing threats to the migratory species being coded as a component in the MPA?
|Large-MPAs are assumed to provide benefits to migratory species but there is very little documented evidence for this (see Maxwell et al 2014 for background info). There are numerous threats to migratory species including: Resource competition, Bycatch, Habitat destruction, Debris, etc. Identifying threats to migratory species can help develop priority setting and a management framework.
Briefly note all ways in which the MPA reduces threats to the migratory species being coded as a component in this MPA.
Please include brief notes on the threats being targeted for reduction and what management measures are being used.
|Marine protected areas
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current
|By having established 33% of park in no-take areas
|Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica
|Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA diving
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current
|Protection of key-life stages for green turtles - all nesting beaches protected and some sea-grass habitat protected
|Sea-turtles - nesting beaches protected (n=3) “Olive Ridley and Green turtles, especially those from Eastern Indonesia, find important nesting, foraging, and migratory grounds in Wakatobi” Quote from the following doc: http://www.coraltriangleinitiative.org/sites/default/files/resources/8_Geographic%20Priorities%20for%20Marine%20Biodiversity%20Conservation%20in%20Indonesia.pdf
|NWHI Monument Act 2006
|Marine debris clean up invasive species elimination
|Raja Ampat Governance System
|Shark sanctuary declared in 2010 - covers 46,000 km2 of waters around the Raja Ampat islands - to protect: dugongs, sharks, turtles and manta rays
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System
|Whale migrations are monitored, individuals are tagged, shipping lanes are navigated to be placed in least-likely collision with migratory species, remote sensing and surveys are conducted to learn abundance and distribution patterns, the Sanctuary responds to distressed migratory species calls. The Sanctuary addresses wildlife disturbance through a mix of educational outreach, regulations, and enforcement. "The Watchable Wildlife program is a unique partnership of federal and state wildlife agencies and non-profit organizations working to educate the public and commercial operators about safe and responsible wildlife viewing practices."
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act
|Habitat Protection Harvesting/Hunting Protection
|There is good protection of important breeding grounds - about 215 kittiwake colonies are known in Svalbard. All traffic is forbidden in bird sanctuaries between 15 May and 15 August. Environmental protection has priority over natural resource extraction, and tourism is managed and monitored. There is limited monitoring/baseline data for many of the migratory species known to be found in Svalbard. The Nature Reserves offer large, relative intact areas with habitat protection for numerous migratory species. Within the Nature Reserves, migratory bird species are also protected against disturbance and harvesting of any kind (including eggs). For whale species, Norwegian regulations prohibit hunting anywhere within Norwegian waters, and therefore any benefits from the Reserves may be limited to habitat protection. However, the regions within the Nature Reserves may receive considerable ‘de facto’ habitat protection since these areas are far from the main town of Longyearbyen and sea-ice sometimes makes travel difficult.
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current
|Migratory species protected through ban on industrial fishing within the GMR, and international conventions. No specific management actions for migratory species.
|Whales (sei, humpback) Tuna Marine birds protected under ACAP – and international conventions that Ecuador subscribes to. Albatross. IUCN processes for red listed spec – gal penguin and cormorant. Upwelling bubble in equator. Sharks – large schooling hammerheads and whale shark come up from south and pregnant females up in Darwin – important behavioral aggregation/birthing points for some of these species. Sharks are migratory between Galapagos and Cocos – and several programmes looking at this
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan
|Threat reduction concentrates on preventing and limiting bycatch in the toothfish fishery and preserving foraging grounds for migratory species.
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012
|Protection of a key life-stage for the southern right whale
|The MMPZ in the GABMP (CW) is 3,875 km2 and provides regulations to allow southern right whales to calve undisturbed.
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan
|Some protection of foraging grounds and protection (on land) of nesting sites.
|The MPA protects some seabird foraging grounds and most seabird nesting grounds on the islands (land-based protection is included in the MPA management plan). Note that most of the seabird protection measures are actually implemented by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority as seabird bycatch mitigation measures under the 2002 Heard and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan (measures are in agreement with CCAMLR seabird conservation measures).
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan
|Cenderwasih governance system
|Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.