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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeText
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeBasic (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Theories
QuestionWhat is the total age of this governance system from when it was originally designated to the end of this interaction?
Select Options
Unit
Role
ImportanceSome scholars (e.g. Ostrom 2005) have hypothesized that older governance system perform better. Age (>10 years) was one of the five key features identified by Edgar et al. (2014) associated with global conservation benefits.
Definition

Age of a governance system defined in years since the date the area was originally designated (this can be before the BeginDate variable, if the area was actually deisgnated outside of the snap-shot being used in this case).

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Ecological effectiveness of MPAs> 10 years

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 20059 years
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 201217It was originally proclaimed in 1998 (17 years old), under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975. Coding for this case started in 2000 when the 1st management plan came into effect (15 years old).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection Act40The Nature Reserves were originally declared in 1973 (40 years, as coding ended in 2013). The snapshot in this case is 2004-2013 (9 years old)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection Act40The Nature Reserves were originally declared in 1973 (40 years, as coding ended in 2013). The snapshot in this case is 2004-2013 (9 years old)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-current40established 1975
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan0This snapshot coincides with the establishment of the management plan.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan 63The land area of Macquarie Island has had some level of protection since 1933. First as a wildlife sanctuary, later becoming a conservation area in 1971, a state reserve in 1972, a biosphere reserve in 1977, and a world heritage area in 1997
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 201217It was originally proclaimed in 1998 (17 years old), under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975. Coding for this case started in 2000 when the 1st management plan came into effect (15 years old).
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance System8The MPA network was first declared in 2007 (8 years old). The snap shot used in this case is from 2009 (when the boundaries were extended) - 6 years.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-current19The WNP was established in 1996 so GS age since then is 19 years. The snap-shot being coded is from 2008 when the WNP was heavily re-zoned and a new 25 year management plan was produced, so GS age for this snap shot is 7 years.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 201217It was originally proclaimed in 1998 (17 years old), under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975. Coding for this case started in 2000 when the 1st management plan came into effect (15 years old).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-current19The WNP was established in 1996 so GS age since then is 19 years. The snap-shot being coded is from 2008 when the WNP was heavily re-zoned and a new 25 year management plan was produced, so GS age for this snap shot is 7 years.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-current19The WNP was established in 1996 so GS age since then is 19 years. The snap-shot being coded is from 2008 when the WNP was heavily re-zoned and a new 25 year management plan was produced, so GS age for this snap shot is 7 years.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-current29Galapagos Reserve of Marine Resources was established in 1986, extending 15 nautical miles from base line of islands (29 years old). This case has been coded from 1998 when the Galapagos Special Law was established, which created the Galapagos Marine Reserve and GMR management plan (17 years).
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceThe Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)30 years1986-2016
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan33The Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) was approved by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce and implemented in 1982. Coding for this case started in 1992 when the Monterey Bay NMS was added to the network (23 years).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan0The Plan wasn't implemented until 2005.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan0The management plan for the reserve was implemented in 2005, three years after the reserve was created.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan 63The land area of Macquarie Island has had some level of protection since 1933. First as a wildlife sanctuary, later becoming a conservation area in 1971, a state reserve in 1972, a biosphere reserve in 1977, and a world heritage area in 1997
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance system25originally declared in 1990, (although designated in 2002).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan0Management Plan came into force in 2005.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan0Fishery Management Plan came into force in 2002
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-current30Established in 1975
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 200510 yearsImplemented at that moment
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection Act40The Nature Reserves were originally declared in 1973 (40 years, as coding ended in 2013). The snapshot in this case is 2004-2013 (9 years old)
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan112005-2016
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan7Management had been in place since 1994; Fishery was closed to commercial fishing between 1999-2003; although research catches were allowed as part of tag-recapture program.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan 63The land area of Macquarie Island has had some level of protection since 1933. First as a wildlife sanctuary, later becoming a conservation area in 1971, a state reserve in 1972, a biosphere reserve in 1977, and a world heritage area in 1997
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance system25originally declared in 1990, (although designated in 2002).
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Quota Management System30 years1986 - 2016
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-current40Was established in 1975
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 200615The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve was established in 2000 (15 years old). Coding for this case started in 2006 (9 years) when it was declared a Monument (meaning state waters and land were included).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System 34The Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary was the first of the Central CA NMSs to be designated in 1981. Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary was designated in 1989 and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary was designated in 1992. Coding for this case started in 1992 (23 years).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System 34The Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary was the first of the Central CA NMSs to be designated in 1981. Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary was designated in 1989 and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary was designated in 1992. Coding for this case started in 1992 (23 years).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-current29Galapagos Reserve of Marine Resources was established in 1986, extending 15 nautical miles from base line of islands (29 years old). This case has been coded from 1998 when the Galapagos Special Law was established, which created the Galapagos Marine Reserve and GMR management plan (17 years).
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance System8The MPA network was first declared in 2007 (8 years old). The snap shot used in this case is from 2009 (when the boundaries were extended) - 6 years.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-current29Galapagos Reserve of Marine Resources was established in 1986, extending 15 nautical miles from base line of islands (29 years old). This case has been coded from 1998 when the Galapagos Special Law was established, which created the Galapagos Marine Reserve and GMR management plan (17 years).
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 200615The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve was established in 2000 (15 years old). Coding for this case started in 2006 (9 years) when it was declared a Monument (meaning state waters and land were included).
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 200615The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve was established in 2000 (15 years old). Coding for this case started in 2006 (9 years) when it was declared a Monument (meaning state waters and land were included).
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan0
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan7Management had been in place since 1994; Fishery was closed to commercial fishing between 1999-2003; although research catches were allowed as part of tag-recapture program.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan0The Management Plan was implemented in 2002, at the beginning of the interaction.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan0The snapshot coincides with the initial establishment of the Marine Park
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance System8The MPA network was first declared in 2007 (8 years old). The snap shot used in this case is from 2009 (when the boundaries were extended) - 6 years.