• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow high is the level of participation of this actor group or their representatives in environmental monitoring?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceEnvironmental monitoring is an important component of commons governance because it allows actors to (periodically) assess the conditions of the commons. Without appropriate environmental monitoring, commons could be degraded either by environmental or by social forces. As with other aspects of participation, engagement of actors in monitoring activities is an important aspect of durable institutional arrangements (McCay et al. 2014).
Definition

This variable describes the level of participation this actor group or their representatives has in the environmental monitoring of the commons.

High: The actor group is in charge of managing the resource with or without the support of the lead management agency.

Medium: The lead management agency consults the actor group during the decision-making process.

Low: The lead management agency informs the actor group of their decisions. None: The lead management agency does not seek input from the actor group.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersMedium (2)Fishermen are consulted with by management body.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismLow (1)No monitoring conducted. Although tourism operators may record polar bear sightings, these sightings are not part of the formal monitoring process.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersLow (1)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)The Bajau are not involved in monitoring
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)The 2 operators, along with the AFMA and other parties are involved in tag-recapture programs to assess the sustainability of stocks.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Monitoring mainly by NGOs, but some support from local community members
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)The research community is heavily involved in the monitoring of the rocky intertidal and has been for a long time. Long term projects include Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), The Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO), and the Point Pinos and the Duxbury Reef Restoration Program which assess visitor use.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Environmental monitoring is heavily conducted by academic researchers, through TOPP, research cruises, and satellite information.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersMedium (2)Recreational users often report sightings and contribute to long term monitoring studies.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenLow (1)Quotas are a passive form of environmental monitoring. All vessels have a monitor observing their activities, and fishermen have to support this monitor.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorMedium (2)Tourism not directly involved in environmental monitoring, but tourism representative on the Participatory Management Board so coded as medium
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)The toothfish fishers are not directly involved in monitoring the conditions of light mantled albatross.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersHigh (3)SAME AS 'ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING' VARIABLE
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismLow (1)No formal monitoring - but ships record species for trip log purposes, and these logs are used for research and management of the areas http://www.aeco.no/guidelines/operational-guidelines/
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMedium (2)Based on some of the CORALINA reports, some of the environmental monitors are fishers
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers 
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)The fishing industry participates in a variety of monitoring activities, including a fisheries observer programs (bringing two onboard observers), a tag-recapture program, and annual trawl surveys.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Commerical fishers have to keep log books, including interactions with protected species, but they don't monitor the state of the resource directly
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenMedium (2)Fishermen conduct monitoring with CDF and Parks Service
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)No monitoring by local communities
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Commerical fishers have to keep log books, including interactions with protected species, but they don't monitor the state of the resource directly
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)Fishers can be involved in fisheries and ecological monitoring which is important for understanding the health of corals as well as fish in the marine park.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)No monitoring by local communities
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)Do not monitor
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHigh (3)Have to keep logbooks, but don't monitor the state of the resource directly
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Monitoring mainly by NGOs, but some support from local community members
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Monitoring mainly by NGOs, but some support from local community members
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Bajau not involved in monitoring
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)The Bajau are not involved in monitoring
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenMedium (2)The lead management agency consults the actor group during the decision-making process. Monitoring is primarily fishery dependent.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersHigh (3)MPI consults with fishing groups. DWG runs their own monitoring program for sea lions and sea birds.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers Commerical fishers have to keep log books, including interactions with protected species, but they don't monitor the state of the resource directly
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)The toothfish fishers are not directly involved in monitoring the conditions of light mantled albatross.