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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow, if at all, have the operational rules that govern use of this environmental commons by this governance system changed during this snapshot?
Select Options1 Less strict, 2 No change, 3 More strict
Unit
Role
ImportanceThis variable is designed to capture whether there has been any change in the strictness of the governance of the case during the snapshot time period. It might be useful to know if something has become more strict because this could have consequences for future effectiveness of the governance system. It could also be seen as a dependent outcome to explain.
Definition

Less strict: this could include reduced enforcement and/or a reduction in the application of sanctions.

 

No change: there has been no change in the governance

More strict: this could include enhanced enforcement and/or increased application of sanctions.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005No change (2)I do not think they changed since 2005
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System More strict (3)More rules and more restricted zoning have been imposed.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006More strict (3)Pelagic and bottom fisheries closed in 2011
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan No change (2)The rules have not changed significantly over this snapshot; although results suggest that efforts to eradicate invasive species have been successful.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanLess strict (1)At the start of this snapshot; longlining was not permitted due to the potential for seabird bycatch. A scientific permit was issued to assess the potential impacts of longlining in 2007; and by 2009 the entire catch was derived from longline fishing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan No change (2)The operational rules within the Macquarie Island Nature Reserve have not significantly changed; implementation of the invasive species eradication program has however been very successful over this snapshot.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006More strict (3)Since the designation of the park, more regulations have been applied, including complete ban on all fishing in 2011
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanLess strict (1)Longline operations were initially prohibited to protect against seabird bycatch. Longline trials began in 2007; and by 2009 trawling ceased (but is still allowed) with all fish being taken by longline. Moreover levels of permissible bycatch of light mantled albatross have increased from 2 per season to 0.01 per 1000 hooks
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006More strict (3)Lobster fishery closed, but the monument required all commercial bottomfish and pelagic fishing in NWHI waters to cease on June 15, 2011.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentNo change (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemMore strict (3)Shark sanctuary introduced in 2010: ban on all harvetsing of sharks, turtle and manta rays
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentMore strict (3)There has been an increase in the ability to monitor IUU fishing through the use of the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) which has been operational in the GMR since 2009.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012No change (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemMore strict (3)Shark sanctuary introduced in 2010 ban on all harvetsing of sharks, turtle and manta rays
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActNo change (2)Ban on the use of ‘heavy fuels’ on boats entering the Nature Reserves entered into force part way through the snapshot (in 2007).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentNo change (2)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActMore strict (3)The maximum number of fishing days was further reduced by 30% in 2006. http://www.fisheries.no/ecosystems-and-stocks/marine_stocks/shellfish/shrimp/#.VfxI2Zf08ms
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012No change (2)The operational rules that govern use of this environmental commons by this governance system have not changed during this snapshot but in 2003, the government announced that it would prohibit mining and exploration activities in the Conservation Zone of the State Water of the GABMP. Previously the Conservation Zone in State Waters allowed petroleum exploration for 6 months of the year, when the southern right whales would not be in the area.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanMore strict (3)Quotas have been declining, more gear restrictions, and more area closures.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance System 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance System 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemMissing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanLess strict (1)While the fishery historically operated via trawling, at the beginning of the snapshot (2003), long-lining was approved for use in the fishery. Since then, there has been proportionally more of the catch taken via longline. Pots have also been used to catch toothfish since 2009.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanNo change (2)Institutional arrangements have not changed in either the highly protected or species management zones
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceThe Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)More strict (3)ITQ further limited access rights and fishing effort. Sanctions have increased as well (in 2015, fines increased from £10,000 to £50,000 for mis-reported catches).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentMore strict (3)There has been an increase in the ability to monitor IUU fishing through the use of the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) which has been operational in the GMR since 2009.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemMore strict (3)This time period has seen some high profile sanctions applied - including large fines and prison sentences (WildAid 2012. Enforcement Assessment) shark and manta ray sanctuary established in 2013 - http://www.conservation.org/NewsRoom/pressreleases/Pages/Victory-for-Sharks-Government-of-Raja-Ampat-Declares-the-first-Shark-and-Manta-Ray-Sanctuary-in-Indonesia-and-the-Coral-Tri.aspx
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentNo change (2)There have not been major changes to green turtle management regulations since the re-zoning in 2004.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012No change (2)No changes in the management of the park during this snapshot. Although, the CCSBT reduced the global total allowable catch (TAC) for 2010 and 2011 to an average level over the two years of 80% of the previously allocated global TAC of 11,810 tonnes.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanNo change (2)The core features of the Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan have not changed over this snapshot.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanNo change (2)There has been no significant changes in the rules for the marine park since its inception as it relates to Royal Penguins.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentMore strict (3)Fisheries regulations have been changed within the period that the new MPA re-zoning has been in place.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System More strict (3)More maneuvering of shipping lanes and ship traffic have occurred.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005No change (2)I do not think they changed since 2005
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentNo change (2)No apparent changes within this snap-shot
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentNo change (2)zoning has not changed since 2004
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanLess strict (1)While the fishery historically operated via trawling, at the beginning of the snapshot (2003), long-lining was approved for use in the fishery, which theoretically poses a greater threat to Light Mantled Albatross. Since then, there has been proportionally more of the catch taken via longline.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanNo change (2)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanNo change (2)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentMore strict (3)There has been an increase in the ability to monitor IUU fishing through the use of the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) which has been operational in the GMR since 2009.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemMore strict (3)More detailed zoning and management plan introduced (2010) during this time
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan No change (2)Governance arrangements have not changes significantly over this snapshot. Fishing has been banned throughout.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActNo change (2)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemMore strict (3)More detailed zoning and management plan introduced (2010) during this time
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanMore strict (3)Catch limit has remained the same. Modify the incidental take provisions specifying that incidentally taken squid shall meet the following criteria: 1. The volume landed or possessed on a vessel cannot exceed two tons per trip; 2. The amount of squid incidentally taken cannot exceed 10 percent of the total volume of the fish landed or possessed on a vessel. (Commercial Market Squid Regulations - Title 14 §149 and 149.1 2014)
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Quota Management SystemMore strict (3)The Fisheries Act 1996 puts a strict liability offence on any person who buys, sells or possesses fish, other aquatic life or seaweed, taken in contravention of the Act. Fisheries Act of 1996 imposed new regulations. More restrictions on flag of vessels, standards on ships, SLED use. While TACC has largely stayed the same, Fisheries-related mortality limit (FRML) has imposed new restrictions on fishery.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanNo change (2)The Management Plan, and its rules about toothfish, have not changed over the course of this snapshot. In 2014, the no take zone was expanded slightly (but that is outside of this snapshot).