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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionDoes this commons user group have a large amount of mobility to move within this system and between this system and other systems?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceIf an actor group is highly mobile this can adversely affect its incentives to preserve a commons in a particular location.
Definition

Actor mobility

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Roving banditryHigh
TranshumanceHigh
Land degradation-deforestation hypothesisDecreasing
Failure of centralized controlLow

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Limited to local systems due to small boats and sea tenure
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenMedium (2)The Galapagos is composed of many islands so some mobility is required.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Limited to local systems due to small boats and sea tenure
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersHigh (3)States that are permitted to fish for shrimp in the Svalbard zone are Canada, the EU, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Russia and Norway. Fishers likely move around the Barrents Sea.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismHigh (3)Some will have more mobility than others - e.g. international cruise ships versus local expeditions, but overall relatively high due to the remote location of Svalbard
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)Oceangoing vessels allow this group to move quickly between different fisheries and markets for toothfish resources.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersHigh (3)Large ocean-going vessels that are capable of fairly rapid movement.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMedium (2)The Bajau were traditionally sea nomads and have always been characterised by a high degree of personal mobility, making use of extensive familial and trading links to undertake extended trips for fishing and social purposes across eastern Indonesia. Coded as medium compared to e.g. industrial fishers.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenHigh (3)Groundfish fishermen can access other fisheries, can access different types of groundfish fisheries (e.g. nearshore vs offshore), and many move to Alaska when quotas and stocks are decreasing.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Researchers can study within the study and outside the system fairly easily. Within the Sanctuary, permits are needed for particular activities, but it is fairly easy to study within the system.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersHigh (3)Recreational users are not constrained by Sanctuary borders. Instead, high sea conditions and weather tend to constrict mobility.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorHigh (3)Much tourism is conducted by boats visiting numerous areas and islands
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)Users use large oceangoing vessels that are capable of fairly rapid movement.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Limited to local systems due to small boats and sea tenure
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMedium (2)The Bajau were traditionally sea nomads and have always been characterised by a high degree of personal mobility, making use of extensive familial and trading links to undertake extended trips for fishing and social purposes across eastern Indonesia. Coded as medium compared to e.g. industrial fishers.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersHigh (3)Users use large ocean-going vessels that are capable of fairly rapid movement.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)Limited to local systems due to small boats and sea tenure
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMedium (2)They can use multiple fishing grounds within the MPA.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Researchers can study within the study and outside the system fairly easily. Within the Sanctuary, permits are needed for particular activities, but it is fairly easy to study within the system.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)Industrial high-power fishing vessels allow fishers to move quickly between different fisheries and to bring toothfish to markets.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismMedium (2)Some will have more mobility than others - e.g. international cruise ships versus local expeditions.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)Limited to local systems due to small boats and sea tenure
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMedium (2)The Bajau were traditionally sea nomads and have always been characterised by a high degree of personal mobility, making use of extensive familial and trading links to undertake extended trips for fishing and social purposes across eastern Indonesia. Coded as medium compared to e.g. industrial fishers.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenMedium (2)Can move to other California fisheries if have appropriate permit. Many go to Alaska. But need licenses, gear, and experienced crew. Vessels not equipped for long weeks out in rough seas.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersMedium (2)Can move to other fisheries, cannot move to other areas outside Fishery Management Areas (FMAs).
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersMedium (2)Vessels can move anywhere within the Loligo Box (not entire FICZ). But technological wise can be ocean-wide. Sometimes go to Africa.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismMedium (2)Liveaboards = yes, but local homestays/dive operators = no
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersHigh (3)Large ocean-going vessels that are capable of fairly rapid movement.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMedium (2)They can use multiple fishing grounds within the MPA
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)HIMI toothfish fishers use industrial fishing vessels that are capable of moving far and wide relatively quickly.