• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeContext (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionWhat proportion of the use of this commons is attributable to this actor group?
Select Options1 Very little (1-10%), 2 A great minority (11-25%), 3 A minority (26-50%), 4 A majority (51-75%), 5 A great majority (76-100%)
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceThis variable helps the SESMAD user record and later analyze the extent to which the institutional and social features of a particular actor group are likely to affect the overall conditions of the commons. Commons user that use a large proportion of a commons are likely to have greater effects on commons outcomes.
Definition

This variable records the proportion (from 0 to 100%) of this commons that is attributable to this actor group.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaA majority (51-75%) (4)This is actually a subject of some debate, with different authors putting different levels of emphasis on the use of the forest by local people and industries - see Peluso (1992), Dove (1996) and Heydir (1999). A general consensus would be that extractive industries were more important, and we thus code them as a "a majority" and "adat communities" as a minority.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesA minority (26-50%) (3)There are conflicting accounts of the relative use of the forest commons in Indonesia in this period. Some accounts emphasize the primacy of industries in using and exploiting forests (see for example Peluso 1992; Dove 1996), while others emphasize the importance of local forest users, including both colonists and adat communities (see Heydir 1999).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersVery little (1-10%) (1)Researchers do not use humpback whales in the form of "taking" but instead monitor and observe them.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursA minority (26-50%) (3)This user group emerged as an important user of forest products during this period, however it is not clear what proportion of forest products they use. A minority is an estimate, as they still appear to be less important than larger commercial firms.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesA great minority (11-25%) (2)with the growth of local entrepreneurs and large extractive industries, the proportion of use of this commons by customary communities appears to be declining, although we do not have direct evidence of this.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissing
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in IndonesiaVery little (1-10%) (1)This group does not use the commons directly (it is primarily involved in monitoring)
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaA majority (51-75%) (4)There is not clear evidence on this point, however it appears from most accounts that large extractive industries continue to play the dominant role in forest extraction and depletion. However, the relative contributions of logging industries and others have probably changed, with clearing for export oriented commodity production (particularly palm oil) becoming much more important during this period.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenA majority (51-75%) (4)This group uses all of the commons that is accessible to them. Many of the traditional fishing grounds are closed to fishing, thus they are no longer being used.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersA great majority (76-100%) (5)Industrial ODS producers are directly or indirectly responsible for the vast majority of ODS emissions.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsA minority (26-50%) (3)One of the main sources of pollution were heavy metals (Cadmium and Zinc), which originated mostly (see Cadmium and Zinc) in the iron and steel, metal refining and cement manufacturing industries.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers Not applicable; recreational fishers don't directly use coral reefs
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersA majority (51-75%) (4)Extraction by commercial fishers exceeds that by recreational fishers for some but not all target species.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenA great majority (76-100%) (5)Rights to fish sea cucumber within the GMR is exclusive to local resident fishermen.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersVery little (1-10%) (1)Researchers do not use the habitat, except for occasional research projects, but permits are allocated for such uses.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersA great majority (76-100%) (5)Only ones with access (other than the natural predators).
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersA great majority (76-100%) (5)Industrial ODS producers are directly or indirectly responsible for the vast majority of ODS emissions.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersA great majority (76-100%) (5)100% of legal fishing within the Macquarie EEZ is attributable to this group; there is limited evidence of IUU fishing in the area.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersA great majority (76-100%) (5)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorA great minority (11-25%) (2)No direct use. However, tourist trampling of eggs on nesting beaches has been identified as a threat to green turtles (Zarate 2006) and injuries through boat strikes are visible on 20% of nesting females (Stuart Banks pers comm) - so coded as 11-25%
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersA majority (51-75%) (4)Bajau comprise the majority of fishers in WNP, and green turtles tend to be caught opportunistically mainly by Bajau net fishers (Clifton 2013).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersA majority (51-75%) (4)Fishing is the primary income source for 70% of Bajau, and although the population is lower (than Butonese) they account for about 50% of all fishers (Cullen, Pretty et al. 2007)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersVery little (1-10%) (1)Bajau are associated with destructive practices, including coral mining - which is used as building material (Clifton and Majors 2012). Coral mining has been suggested to be an issue in the WNP (Caras and Pasternak 2009). However, Clifton (2013) did not consider it to be significant, given the availability and access to cheaper land rock, limited evidence for coral mining in the park, and the absence of references to coral mining in the current management plan.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersVery little (1-10%) (1)The main interaction between commerical fishers and sealions are as bycatch in gillnet fisheries (southern bluefin tuna in the GABMP is mainly purse-seine). Bycatch levels in the gillnet fishery have been proposed as unsustainable and potentially causing a decline in the Austrlaian sea lion population (Hamer et al. 2011).
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersVery little (1-10%) (1)Some reports of destructive fishing practices (e.g. bomb fishing) but this is a minority
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismA majority (51-75%) (4)indirect use - but diving in Raja Ampat is attractive because of high coral cover
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersVery little (1-10%) (1)Turtles are a traditional food, but reports indicate this practice has been greatly reduced with alternative meat sources introduced in some villages (pigs), so I believe the proportion of turtles consumed locally is minimal
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersA great majority (76-100%) (5)Subsistence use (Smith et al. 2009).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersA great majority (76-100%) (5)Southern bluefin tuna is the most valuable fishery species produced in South Australia, accounting for 63% of aquaculture production and 34% of total fisheries production in South Australia in 2011–12. Most southern bluefin tuna in Australia is caught by Commonwealth endorsed vessels in the Great Australian Bight and delivered to aquaculture farms off Port Lincoln in South Australia for fattening (Australian Fisheries Statistics 2012).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersA majority (51-75%) (4)Extraction by commercial fishers exceeds that by recreational fishers for some but not all target species, but exact estimates not available because rec fishing catches not minotired.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersA great minority (11-25%) (2)Toothfish fishers at Macquarie Island interact with light-mantled albatross only while fishing. Although bycatch is a potential threat; light-mantled albatross are not year round residents of Macquarie Island, and face larger threats from tuna fleets, and on breeding grounds (ACAP 2012)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersVery little (1-10%) (1)There are a few incidences of southern right whales becoming entangled in fishing gear. Vessel disturbace is also a perceived threat to this species.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersA minority (26-50%) (3)Recreational users observe but do not use the commons. Very roughly perhaps ~50% of the whales that come through the Sanctuary are involved in some kind of recreational observation.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismA great majority (76-100%) (5)Since hunting is no longer permitted (since 1973), the only current ways polar bears are used by people is viewing by tourists. Participating on an organized cruise with one of the members of AECO is virtually the only way to access the Nature Reserves.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersVery little (1-10%) (1)No direct use of corals
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism No direct use - but people visit Svalbard to see the seabirds, including kittiwake. Participating on an organized cruise with one of the members of AECO is virtually the only way to access the Nature Reserves.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersA majority (51-75%) (4)Subsistence use by local communities - variety of local dependence on marine resources, and many communities were originally hill tribes (lower local dependence than e.g Raja Ampat)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersA great majority (76-100%) (5)100% of the legal fishing is attributable to this group. There has been no reported illegal fishing since 2006 in the HIMI EEZ.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersVery little (1-10%) (1)Commercial fisheries do not utilise corals directly, though many target fish species depend on corals
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenA great majority (76-100%) (5)License precludes anyone else from using commercially. Some squid is taken by small recreational and live bait activity. Considered key forage fish (can be thought that some is used by predators).
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersA majority (51-75%) (4)Small recreational fishery. No indigenous fishery. Small jigging fishery.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersA minority (26-50%) (3)This depends on the target species. Recreational fishers have the biggest impact on some but not all the major species fished by rec and commercial fishers.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersA great minority (11-25%) (2)Toothfish fishers at HIMI interact with light-mantled albatross only while fishing, so a small percentage of the year. Further, the HIMI light mantled albatross are only present at HIMI for part of the year (while they are breeding). These birds have historically faced larger threats from being catch incidentally in Tuna Fleets (ACAP 2012).