• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeOutcomes (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionWhat is the general trend in the condition of cultural services (e.g. spiritual, aesthetic, recreation, education) derived from this commons during the time frame of this snapshot?
Select Options1 Worsened, 2 Mixed effects or remained the same, 3 Improving
Unit
Role
Importance"The cultural services provided by a commons is an important outcome of interest that users can try to explain. Ecosystem services are a lens through which human benefits from ecosystems can be considered (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Daily et al. 2000). This question seeks to ascertain whether the condition of cultural services has worsened, is mixed or remained the same, or improved for an actor group. The variable applies to all relevant cultural services of the resource and governance system for that actor group."
Definition

"This variable describes trends in the condition of cultural services provided by the commons in this interaction. Cultural services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as ""…the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences, including: Cultural diversity. The diversity of ecosystems is one factor influencing the diversity of cultures. Spiritual and religious values. Many religions attach spiritual and religious values to ecosystems or their components. „ Knowledge systems (traditional and formal). Ecosystems influence the types of knowledge systems developed by different cultures. Educational values. Ecosystems and their components and processes provide the basis for both formal and informal education in many societies. Inspiration. Ecosystems provide a rich source of inspiration for art, folklore, national symbols, architecture, and advertising. Aesthetic values. Many people find beauty or aesthetic value in various aspects of ecosystems, as reflected in the support for parks, “scenic drives,” and the selection of housing locations. Social relations. Ecosystems influence the types of social relations that are established in particular cultures. Fishing societies, for example, differ in many respects in their social relations from nomadic herding or agricultural societies. Sense of place. Many people value the “sense of place” that is associated with recognized features of their environment, including aspects of the ecosystem. Cultural heritage values. Many societies place high value on the maintenance of either historically important landscapes (“cultural landscapes”) or culturally significant species. Recreation and ecotourism. People often choose where to spend theileisure time based in part on the characteristics of the natural or cultivated landscapes in a particular area."""

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Critique of fortress conservationImproved
Local livelihood and protected areasImproved

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaWorsened (1)forest condition declined during this period, and we thus presume that associated ecosystem services also declined.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaWorsened (1)Declining forest cover led to a decline in the ability of this system to provide all forms of ecosystem services in this time period.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna  N/A
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna 
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Fish ResourcesImproving (3)Groups have been able to derive harvesting benefits by harvesting within their PHC.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Fish ResourcesImproving (3)Community members have obtained cultural benefits by harvesting within their PHC.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaMissing
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)Effect based on zoning system, which is what GBRMPA and QPWS use for management. At the scale of the whole reef, too much land-based run-off (sedimentation, nutrients) negatively affects coral cover. Locally, though, no-take areas can increase coral cover by maintaining a healthy ecosystem.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fish 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)Effect based on zoning system, which is what GBRMPA and QPWS use for management. At the scale of the whole reef, too much land-based run-off (sedimentation, nutrients) negatively affects coral cover. Coral cover is what tourists are attracted to. Locally, though, no-take areas can increase coral cover by maintaining a healthy ecosystem. But tourism continues to be high, apparently not affected by declining coral cover
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthImproving (3)Recreation and education have increased.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishImproving (3)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverImproving (3)Tourism operators appear to be pleased with progress in reducing the decline of coral cover (which has largely had mixed effects). In addition, education of coral reefs and their importance has increased among resource users. Little evidence on spiritual or aesthetic values but access has not been significantly reduced by the small no-take areas meaning people can still enjoy and access most areas.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningNot Applicable
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Fish ResourcesImproving (3)Members of the community have been able to obtain cultural benefits by harvesting fish resources from within the PHC.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish Not Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinMixed effects or remained the same (2)Penguin populations have remained stable or increasing; and are often visited by tourists on visits to the island.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleImproving (3)The green sea turtle is an important cultural symbol in Hawaii. Access to NWHI for traditional purposes through the Monument has led to a regeneration and re-understanding of traditional practices and traditions -A. Wilhelm pers comm.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityImproving (3)No empirical evidence, but there is a regeneration and re-understanding of traditional practices and traditions through access to traditional materials (e.g. seabird bones for tattoo, feathers for Kahili) available in the NWHI that was previously prohibited before the Monument - A. Wilhelm pers comm.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtleImproving (3)Tourism is increasing
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionMixed effects or remained the same (2)Tourism remains popular, but the local subpopulation of Australian sea lions has declined dramatically (Bunda Cliffs sub-population (GABMP) has experienced a 39% decline in mean maximum number of pups counted per site over 19 years, or ~64% decline over three generations) so coded as declined
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksImproving (3)tourism is increasing in the GMR
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Fish ResourcesImproving (3)Members of the community have been able to obtain cultural benefits by harvesting fish resources from within the PHC.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Fish ResourcesMixed effects or remained the same (2)Actors have not derived legal harvesting benefits from their PHC throughout this snapshot.
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Fish ResourcesImproving (3)Groups have been able to derive harvesting benefits by harvesting within their PHC.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleImproving (3)Tourism is increasing in the area, and the cost of tourism permits has also increased (revenue increasing)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverImproving (3)Tourism is increasing in the area.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish Not Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleImproving (3)Tourism is increasing in the area.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatImproving (3)Scuba divers are very common in groundfish fishery habitat. Kelp forests are especially important for this. Monterey has become increasingly popular tourism destination.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhaleImproving (3)Whale watching services have increased over time, as well as the number of tourists to the Sanctuaries.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossMissing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossMissing
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleMixed effects or remained the same (2)Tourists come to view the southern right whales from the cliffs at the Head of Bight during calving season. This provides a cultural service through tourism benefits. Even though the number of domestic and international tourists to the Eyre Peninsula, in which the GABMP (CW) is located, have decreased slightly during this snapshot (Eyre Peninsula Regional Tourism Profile - tourism.sa.gov.au) a report in 2013/2014 indicates that 40% of all international visitors to Australia traveled to a national park. Because of this, the government of South Australia is promoting nature-based tourism in this State, which may increase the number of whale watchers (although, this will occur outside of the time frame coded for the case).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeImproving (3)The number of tourists visiting Svalbard has increased (Sysselmannen pa Svalbard 2013). With more people experiencing the service, the flow of benefits to people would be greater.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)Not Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtleWorsened (1)The number of tourists has declined slightly since 2004 (GBRMPA [online]b), increases, therefore decreasing the number of people aesthetically appreciating turtles. Note - The traditional use of turtles is allowed, and access has been improved through the re-zoning (since 2004)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverImproving (3)Tourism in increasing in the area
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsMissingNO DATA
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearImproving (3)Not because the supply of the service (i.e. the number of bears) has changed during the snapshot, but because the number of tourists visiting Svalbard increased (Sysselmannen på Svalbard 2013c). With more people experiencing the service, the flow of benefits to people would be greater.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinMixed effects or remained the same (2)Tourists like seeing lots of penguins, and lots of penguins remain.
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Fish ResourcesMixed effects or remained the same (2)Actors have not derived legal harvesting benefits from their PHC throughout this snapshot.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishNot Applicable
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)Not Applicable
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)Mixed effects or remained the same (2)About the same.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Fish ResourcesMixed effects or remained the same (2)Members of the community have been able to obtain cultural benefits by harvesting fish resources from within the PHC.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish Not Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersMixed effects or remained the same (2)Follows the Commons Condition Trend