• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeBasic (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionAt what scale does this governance system operate?
Select OptionsInternational Regime, State-based policy, Sub-national (State, Province, District), Local (Village, Community)
ImportanceScale is a potential underlying explanatory variable that characterizes governance practice.

This variable defines the scale at which the governance system operates. International regime: more than one country is involved State-based (national) policy: at the level of one country Subnational policy: within a country (e.g., states, provinces, regions) Local: a finer scale than subnational (e.g., community-level, several villages)


Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-1998State-based policyThis was a nation state.
"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-2012State-based policyThis is a nation-state, with state-based policy (i.e. governing forests within the country of Indonesia)
ICCAT Governance SystemInternational RegimeICCAT governs use of a subset of fisheries resources (including Atlantic Bluefin Tuna) that inhabit the Atlantic Ocean. Nation states that do not border the Atlantic, such as Japan are eligible to join ICCAT and fish in international waters.
Montreal ProtocolInternational Regime
Pre-Montreal Protocol Ozone GovernanceState-based policyNational legislation determined whether or not a state governed ODS emissions.
Community H Governance SystemLocal (Village, Community)
The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)State-based policyAs a British Overseas Territory, the Falkland Islands is a dependency of Britain, but has its own currency and government. The Falkland Island Fisheries Department oversees the fisheries within the waters of the Falkland Islands Conservation Zones.
Sasi in Tomolol, Misool  
GMR governance system 1998-currentState-based policyState-based policy. Applies only to the province of Galapagos, Ecuador.
Rhine Chemicals ConventionInternational Regime
Rhine Action PlanInternational Regime
GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999State-based policySub-regional scale. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is in the state of Queensland, thus a sub-national scale.
GBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentState-based policySub-regional scale. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is in the state of Queensland, thus a sub-national scale.
Wakatobi National Park 2008-currentState-based policyState based policy applied to a single MPA, within the Sulawesi Tenggara Province
NWHI Monument Act 2006State-based policyNational law
Magnuson-Stevens ActState-based policy
Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanState-based policyThe Toothfish fisheries management plan is governed by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority
Raja Ampat Governance SystemState-based policyState-based policy - Raja Ampat Regency
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System State-based policyAll within California
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan State-based policyState of Tasmania-level policy operates within the context of international agreements such as the World Heritage Convention, Convention on Biodiversity, Convention on Migratory Species, and the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels.
Community D Governance SystemSub-national (State, Province, District)
Community A Governance SystemSub-national (State, Province, District)
Community C Governance SystemSub-national (State, Province, District)
Community E Governance SystemSub-national (State, Province, District)
Community B Governance SystemSub-national (State, Province, District)
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanState-based policy
Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanState-based policyPFMC oversees activities in California, Oregon, and Washington.
Svalbard Environmental Protection ActState-based policyState-based policy
Seaflower MPA Act 2005Sub-national (State, Province, District)It is entirely contained within Colombian territory although a recent International Court of Justice decision awarded a part of the MPA territory to Nicaragua.
Community G Governance SystemLocal (Village, Community)
Community F Governance SystemSub-national (State, Province, District)
Galapagos Governance System 1998-currentState-based policyState-based: Applies only to the province of Galapagos, Ecuador.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012State-based policyThe EPBC Act (1999) is the Australian Government key piece of national environmental legislation which provides for the preparation of management plans. The EPBC Act requires a management plan for a Commonwealth reserve
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanState-based policyThe management plan is state-based since the Heard and McDonald Islands are governed as an Australian territory (despite their distance from the Australian mainland ~4000km).
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanState-based policyFisheries at Heard and McDonald Islands are managed by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA), in close cooperation with AAD (the Australian Antarctic Division) and in accordance with Conservation Measures set by CCAMLR (The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, which is an international regime).
Cenderwasih governance systemState-based policy
California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanSub-national (State, Province, District)State based (California)
New Zealand Quota Management SystemState-based policyNational (all of New Zealand)
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in BrazilState-based policy
Indonesian Department of Fisheries and AquacultureSub-national (State, Province, District)
Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA divingLocal (Village, Community)
Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa RicaState-based policy