|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Basic (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||At what scale does this governance system operate?|
|Select Options||International Regime, State-based policy, Sub-national (State, Province, District), Local (Village, Community)|
|Importance||Scale is a potential underlying explanatory variable that characterizes governance practice.|
This variable defines the scale at which the governance system operates. International regime: more than one country is involved State-based (national) policy: at the level of one country Subnational policy: within a country (e.g., states, provinces, regions) Local: a finer scale than subnational (e.g., community-level, several villages)
|"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-1998||State-based policy||This was a nation state.|
|"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-2012||State-based policy||This is a nation-state, with state-based policy (i.e. governing forests within the country of Indonesia)|
|ICCAT Governance System||International Regime||ICCAT governs use of a subset of fisheries resources (including Atlantic Bluefin Tuna) that inhabit the Atlantic Ocean. Nation states that do not border the Atlantic, such as Japan are eligible to join ICCAT and fish in international waters.|
|GMR governance system 1998-current||State-based policy||State-based policy. Applies only to the province of Galapagos, Ecuador.|
|Montreal Protocol||International Regime|
|Pre-Montreal Protocol Ozone Governance||State-based policy||National legislation determined whether or not a state governed ODS emissions.|
|Rhine Chemicals Convention||International Regime|
|Rhine Action Plan||International Regime|
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999||State-based policy||Sub-regional scale. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is in the state of Queensland, thus a sub-national scale.|
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current||State-based policy||Sub-regional scale. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is in the state of Queensland, thus a sub-national scale.|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||State-based policy||State based policy applied to a single MPA, within the Sulawesi Tenggara Province|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||State-based policy||National law|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||State-based policy||State-based policy - Raja Ampat Regency|
|Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan||State-based policy||State of Tasmania-level policy operates within the context of international agreements such as the World Heritage Convention, Convention on Biodiversity, Convention on Migratory Species, and the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels.|
|Community A Governance System||Sub-national (State, Province, District)|
|Community C Governance System||Sub-national (State, Province, District)|
|Community B Governance System||Sub-national (State, Province, District)|
|Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan||State-based policy||PFMC oversees activities in California, Oregon, and Washington.|
|Community E Governance System||Sub-national (State, Province, District)|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||State-based policy||State-based: Applies only to the province of Galapagos, Ecuador.|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||State-based policy|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||State-based policy||The management plan is state-based since the Heard and McDonald Islands are governed as an Australian territory (despite their distance from the Australian mainland ~4000km).|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||State-based policy||Fisheries at Heard and McDonald Islands are managed by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA), in close cooperation with AAD (the Australian Antarctic Division) and in accordance with Conservation Measures set by CCAMLR (The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, which is an international regime).|
|The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)||State-based policy||As a British Overseas Territory, the Falkland Islands is a dependency of Britain, but has its own currency and government. The Falkland Island Fisheries Department oversees the fisheries within the waters of the Falkland Islands Conservation Zones.|
|California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan||Sub-national (State, Province, District)||State based (California)|
|Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil||State-based policy|
|Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA diving||Local (Village, Community)|
|Sasi in Tomolol, Misool|
|Magnuson-Stevens Act||State-based policy|
|Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan||State-based policy||The Toothfish fisheries management plan is governed by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||State-based policy||All within California|
|Community D Governance System||Sub-national (State, Province, District)|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||State-based policy||State-based policy|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||Sub-national (State, Province, District)||It is entirely contained within Colombian territory although a recent International Court of Justice decision awarded a part of the MPA territory to Nicaragua.|
|Community G Governance System||Local (Village, Community)|
|Community F Governance System||Sub-national (State, Province, District)|
|Community H Governance System||Local (Village, Community)|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||State-based policy||The EPBC Act (1999) is the Australian Government key piece of national environmental legislation which provides for the preparation of management plans. The EPBC Act requires a management plan for a Commonwealth reserve|
|Cenderwasih governance system||State-based policy|
|New Zealand Quota Management System||State-based policy||National (all of New Zealand)|
|Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture||Sub-national (State, Province, District)|
|Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica||State-based policy|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.