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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindComponent
ThemeSocial capital (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow frequently do the actors within this group, or individual representatives, communicate remotely?
Select Options1 Never, 2 Less than once every 2 years, 3 Once every 2 years, 4 Once a year, 5 More than once a year
Unit
Role
ImportanceEmpirical and experimental research has shown that communication among actors can influence how effective rule-making for collective action is within a group (Poteete and Ostrom 2010). This variable records the frequency of indirect or remote communication within actor groups. It complements the variable ActorPersonalCommunication. Communication as a way of sharing conceptual and practical information and ideas underpins collaboration and co-operation. Both type and frequency of communication are expected to be important.
Definition

This variable records the frequency of non face-to-face communication within actor groups (e.g., emails, telephone calls).

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
Galapagos Artisan FishermenMore than once a year (5)Assume some remote communcation occurs
"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)More than once a year (5)Although not all members of this group communicated on a frequent basis with each other, some subgroups communicated with each other very frequently (on a daily basis). Although we have no direct evidence of this, given the period, we assume that much of this communication took place by telephone, remotely.
Indonesian "Adat" CommunitiesMore than once a year (5)Within groups, communication is frequent; between groups it is less frequent though also regular through social movements and organizations like AMAN.
Large Extractive Industries in Indonesia Does this refer to inter or intra group?
Indonesian District Governments Does this refer to inter or intra group. Within districts, individuals communicate very frequently (far more than once per year), and some of this communication happens remotely, but between districts, they do not communicate.
"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)More than once a year (5)Different components of the government are in frequent (daily) communication. While we don't have direct evidence, we assume that at least some of this communication occurs remotely (i.e. through email or telephone).
Indonesian Local entrepreneurs ? Some members of this group communicate with each other, but it isn't clear to me how to fill out this variable, since the group as a whole doesn't communicate at any time.
Civil society organizations in Indonesia ?
ICCAT Contracting Parties More than once a year (5)
ICCAT Western Members 
ICCAT Eastern Members ICCAT contracting parties meet regularly, but there are no separate meetings, or evidence thereof for ICCAT Eastern Members.
Ozone Nation States  Missing in case
Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersMore than once a year (5)
Ozone SecretariatMore than once a year (5)
ICPR nations (1976-1986) 
ICPR nations (1986-2000) 
Rhine chemical firms 
Rhine agricultural sector 
GBR government co-managersMore than once a year (5)
GBR recreational fishersMore than once a year (5)
Wetfish Fishermen 
GBR fisheries managersMore than once a year (5)Frequent communication over agency policies and management through email, phone, etc.,
GBR commercial fishersMore than once a year (5)
National Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAMore than once a year (5)Members of the NOAA office communicate remotely frequently.
Australian Toothfish FishersMore than once a year (5)In coordinating through various forums (e.g., see above, SARAG, SouthMAC, CCAMLR, COLTO) as well as MSC certification.
Wakatobi Bajau fishersNever (1)Bajau live on settlements on the sea, limited infrastructure. Remote communication difficult (and less important than personal communication in this case)
NWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship More than once a year (5)Assumed because government agencies
Wakatobi managersMore than once a year (5)Assumed
Australian Antarctic DivisionMore than once a year (5)Via email.
GMR managersMore than once a year (5)Assumed
Riparian Nations (1976-1986) 
Charles Darwin FoundationMore than once a year (5)Well-organised, international organisation
Galapagos Tourism SectorMore than once a year (5)Assumed due to coordination and reporting
Raja Ampat Artisanal FishersMore than once a year (5)Personal communication likley to be more prominent
NWHI ResearchersNot Applicable
California Academic ResearchersMore than once a year (5)Communication via email, telephone, and teleconferencing occurs many times during the year. Some projects never coordinate with others, but for the most part communication occurs many times during the year.
California Sanctuary Recreational UsersMissingVaries widely, sometimes often sometimes never
California Groundfish FishermenMore than once a year (5)Likely often. Phone calls are the most common form of remote communications.
California State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesMore than once a year (5)Team members typically work on a day to day basis together, and teleconference, email, and telephone communications are frequent (daily to weekly).
Raja Ampat TourismMore than once a year (5)
Australian Fisheries Management AuthorityMore than once a year (5)In coordinating through various forums (e.g., see above, SARAG, SouthMAC, CCAMLR, etc.).
Raja Ampat ManagersMore than once a year (5)
Macquarie Island ManagersMissing
Svalbard Resource ManagersMore than once a year (5)Although precise figures are unknown, coordinating monitoring efforts for tourism and environment would require considerable communication.
Svalbard TourismMore than once a year (5)The AECO Guidelines (2014-2015) require operators to communicate in the pre-tourist season in order to coordinate schedules and itineraries. In addition, vessels are required to communicate with one another at sea to avoid too many boats in one area.
CORALINANot Applicable
Seaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Svalbard Shrimp FishersMissingUnknown
Galapagos Charles Darwin FoundationMore than once a year (5)Well-organised, international organisation
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks More than once a year (5)Where appropriate, video and telephone links are used to liaise with executive and senior staff that are located in remote locations. Coordination between managers and the executive team includes regular phone link-ups.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMore than once a year (5)A membership engagement policy statement (2014) specified the need to convey information from committees to CFA membership and that the use of emails and electronic newsletters would be used as methods of communication as frequently as possible. It also stated that CFA utilizes emails and newsletters as a speedy and cost effective way of communicating to members.
Cenderwasih fishersMissing
Cenderwasih managersMore than once a year (5)Assumed to be coordination through reporting to central governement and WWF annual reports
Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersMore than once a year (5)All know each other and email each other daily
Patagonian Squid TrawlersMore than once a year (5)Communicate frequently over radio during season
New Zealand Fishery ManagersMore than once a year (5)Communicate daily
New Zealand Arrow Squid FishersMore than once a year (5)Communicate frequently
California market squid fishermenMore than once a year (5)Some daily, others frequently
California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersMore than once a year (5)Communicate daily/weekly.