|Variable Component Type||Actor|
|Theme||Social capital (learn about themes)|
|Question||How frequently do the actors within this group, or individual representatives, communicate remotely?|
|Select Options||1 Never, 2 Less than once every 2 years, 3 Once every 2 years, 4 Once a year, 5 More than once a year|
|Importance||Empirical and experimental research has shown that communication among actors can influence how effective rule-making for collective action is within a group (Poteete and Ostrom 2010). This variable records the frequency of indirect or remote communication within actor groups. It complements the variable ActorPersonalCommunication. Communication as a way of sharing conceptual and practical information and ideas underpins collaboration and co-operation. Both type and frequency of communication are expected to be important.|
This variable records the frequency of non face-to-face communication within actor groups (e.g., emails, telephone calls).
|Galapagos Artisan Fishermen||More than once a year (5)||Assume some remote communcation occurs|
|"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)||More than once a year (5)||Although not all members of this group communicated on a frequent basis with each other, some subgroups communicated with each other very frequently (on a daily basis). Although we have no direct evidence of this, given the period, we assume that much of this communication took place by telephone, remotely.|
|Indonesian "Adat" Communities||More than once a year (5)||Within groups, communication is frequent; between groups it is less frequent though also regular through social movements and organizations like AMAN.|
|Large Extractive Industries in Indonesia||Does this refer to inter or intra group?|
|Indonesian District Governments||Does this refer to inter or intra group. Within districts, individuals communicate very frequently (far more than once per year), and some of this communication happens remotely, but between districts, they do not communicate.|
|"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)||More than once a year (5)||Different components of the government are in frequent (daily) communication. While we don't have direct evidence, we assume that at least some of this communication occurs remotely (i.e. through email or telephone).|
|Indonesian Local entrepreneurs||? Some members of this group communicate with each other, but it isn't clear to me how to fill out this variable, since the group as a whole doesn't communicate at any time.|
|Civil society organizations in Indonesia||?|
|ICCAT Contracting Parties||More than once a year (5)|
|ICCAT Western Members|
|ICCAT Eastern Members||ICCAT contracting parties meet regularly, but there are no separate meetings, or evidence thereof for ICCAT Eastern Members.|
|Ozone Nation States||Missing in case|
|Wakatobi managers||More than once a year (5)||Assumed|
|Australian Antarctic Division||More than once a year (5)||Via email.|
|Riparian Nations (1976-1986)|
|Raja Ampat Artisanal Fishers||More than once a year (5)||Personal communication likley to be more prominent|
|NWHI Researchers||Not Applicable|
|Raja Ampat Managers||More than once a year (5)|
|Macquarie Island Managers||Missing|
|Svalbard Resource Managers||More than once a year (5)||Although precise figures are unknown, coordinating monitoring efforts for tourism and environment would require considerable communication.|
|Svalbard Shrimp Fishers||Missing||Unknown|
|Galapagos Charles Darwin Foundation||More than once a year (5)||Well-organised, international organisation|
|Patagonian Squid Trawlers||More than once a year (5)||Communicate frequently over radio during season|
|California market squid fishermen||More than once a year (5)||Some daily, others frequently|
|California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Managers||More than once a year (5)||Communicate daily/weekly.|
|Brazilian Institute of the Environment & Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA)||Missing|
|Indonesian Institute of Sciences - LIPI||Not Applicable|
|Gili EcoTrust on Gili Trawangan||More than once a year (5)|
|Isla Caballo AMPR Costa Rica||More than once a year (5)|
|Paquera-Tambor AMPR Costa Rica||More than once a year (5)|
|Misool Eco Resort|
|Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers||More than once a year (5)|
|Ozone Secretariat||More than once a year (5)|
|ICPR nations (1976-1986)|
|ICPR nations (1986-2000)|
|Rhine chemical firms|
|Rhine agricultural sector|
|GBR government co-managers||More than once a year (5)|
|GBR recreational fishers||More than once a year (5)|
|GBR fisheries managers||More than once a year (5)||Frequent communication over agency policies and management through email, phone, etc.,|
|GBR commercial fishers||More than once a year (5)|
|National Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA||More than once a year (5)||Members of the NOAA office communicate remotely frequently.|
|Raja Ampat Tourism||More than once a year (5)|
|Australian Toothfish Fishers||More than once a year (5)||In coordinating through various forums (e.g., see above, SARAG, SouthMAC, CCAMLR, COLTO) as well as MSC certification.|
|Wakatobi Bajau fishers||Never (1)||Bajau live on settlements on the sea, limited infrastructure. Remote communication difficult (and less important than personal communication in this case)|
|NWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship||More than once a year (5)||Assumed because government agencies|
|GMR managers||More than once a year (5)||Assumed|
|Charles Darwin Foundation||More than once a year (5)||Well-organised, international organisation|
|Galapagos Tourism Sector||More than once a year (5)||Assumed due to coordination and reporting|
|California Academic Researchers||More than once a year (5)||Communication via email, telephone, and teleconferencing occurs many times during the year. Some projects never coordinate with others, but for the most part communication occurs many times during the year.|
|California Sanctuary Recreational Users||Missing||Varies widely, sometimes often sometimes never|
|California Groundfish Fishermen||More than once a year (5)||Likely often. Phone calls are the most common form of remote communications.|
|California State and Federal Fisheries Agencies||More than once a year (5)||Team members typically work on a day to day basis together, and teleconference, email, and telephone communications are frequent (daily to weekly).|
|Australian Fisheries Management Authority||More than once a year (5)||In coordinating through various forums (e.g., see above, SARAG, SouthMAC, CCAMLR, etc.).|
|Svalbard Tourism||More than once a year (5)||The AECO Guidelines (2014-2015) require operators to communicate in the pre-tourist season in order to coordinate schedules and itineraries. In addition, vessels are required to communicate with one another at sea to avoid too many boats in one area.|
|Seaflower artisanal fishers||Missing||NO DATA|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks||More than once a year (5)||Where appropriate, video and telephone links are used to liaise with executive and senior staff that are located in remote locations. Coordination between managers and the executive team includes regular phone link-ups.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers||More than once a year (5)||A membership engagement policy statement (2014) specified the need to convey information from committees to CFA membership and that the use of emails and electronic newsletters would be used as methods of communication as frequently as possible. It also stated that CFA utilizes emails and newsletters as a speedy and cost effective way of communicating to members.|
|Cenderwasih managers||More than once a year (5)||Assumed to be coordination through reporting to central governement and WWF annual reports|
|Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Managers||More than once a year (5)||All know each other and email each other daily|
|New Zealand Fishery Managers||More than once a year (5)||Communicate daily|
|New Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers||More than once a year (5)||Communicate frequently|
|Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio)|
|Secretary of State for the Environment of Pará (SEMA) in Brazil||Missing|
|Association of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in Brazil||Less than once every 2 years (2)||Low communication between groups|
|Lombok aquaculture farmers||Never (1)|
|SCUBA diving businesses on Gili Trawangan||Missing|
|Gili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)||More than once a year (5)|
|Palito-Montero AMPR Costa Rica||More than once a year (5)|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.