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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeSocial capital (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionHow high is the level of trust between the different actor groups in this case?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceTrust is closely associated to reciprocity and both variables are viewed as critical components for the establishment of cooperation and the achievement of collective action. Trust and reciprocity reduce the need for monitoring and institutional arrangements in general, and thus recuces the costs of collaboration. Without trust and reciprocity the governance of commons becomes more difficult.
Definition

"Trust is the belief in the reliability, truth, ability or strenght of another actor (group). This variable is specific about the existence of trust across actor groups. Low: Actor (groups) have no or very little faith or confidence that the other actor (groups) will fulfill their promises High: Actor (groups) have the full faith and confidence that the other actor (groups) will fulfill their promises"

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-2012 don't know?
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanMissing
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-1998Low (1)Although we do not have direct evidence of trust, we believe based on accounts of constant conflict between actors groups, that trust levels were low.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemMissing
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceMontreal ProtocolMissing
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemMissing
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Governance SystemMissing
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999Medium (2)Not sure about this
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine Chemicals ConventionMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentMedium (2)Not sure about this.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999Medium (2)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentLow (1)Management actors don't trust Bajau and vice versa.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Medium (2)At the start of the time period trust was low, but now (2015) it is considerably better so coded as medium
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentLow (1)Management actors don't trust Bajau and vice versa.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentLow (1)Management actors don't trust Bajau and vice versa (Clifton 2013)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Medium (2)At the start of the time period trust was low, but now (2015) it is considerably better so coded as medium
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Medium (2)At the start of the time period trust was low, but now (2015) it is considerably better so coded as medium
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanMissing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Missing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentMedium (2)Would have been low at the start of the time period being coded, but appears to have improved by the end as there appears to be a lot less conflict occurring now and the PMB has been able to reach consensus for all management decision in the last few years (the IMA have not needed to meet) - so coded as medium
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Governance SystemMedium (2)1.23/5: This value indicates that levels of trust in others falls somewhere between entirely distrust (1) and distrust more than trust (2).
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Missing
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012High (3)Stakeholder confidence in management rose with the establishment of a Consultative Committee of stakeholders that contributed effectively to management planning (National Parks 2005). During the time period of the first Management Plan discussions with industry resulted in increased compliance by the trawl fishery. Achievements and progress made in management the Park's resources, biodiversity and habitats during the time period of the first Management Plan were attributed to having effective working relations between the Australian and South Australian governments allowing for a successful cooperative management enterprise between the two governments through a Service Level Agreement. The different actor’s work together as part of the GABMP Steering and Consultative Committees to help in the development of the Management Plans and these Committees (which include representatives from the Commercial fishing sector) advise the Director on GABMP (CW) management.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemHigh (3)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemHigh (3)set up as a collaboration from the outset so trust is high (M.Erdmann pers comm.)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemHigh (3)
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Governance SystemLow (1)2.91/5: This value indicates that levels of trust in others falls somewhere between distrust more than trust (2) and neither trust nor distrust (3).
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Governance SystemMedium (2)3.23/5: This value indicates that levels of trust in individuals from other villages falls somewhere between neither trust nor distrust (3) and trust more than distrust (4).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012High (3)Stakeholder confidence in management rose with the establishment of a Consultative Committee of stakeholders that contributed effectively to management planning (National Parks 2005). During the time period of the first Management Plan discussions with industry resulted in increased compliance by the trawl fishery. Achievements and progress made in management the Park's resources, biodiversity and habitats during the time period of the first Management Plan were attributed to having effective working relations between the Australian and South Australian governments allowing for a successful cooperative management enterprise between the two governments through a Service Level Agreement. The different actor’s work together as part of the GABMP Steering and Consultative Committees to help in the development of the Management Plans and these Committees (which include representatives from the Commercial fishing sector) advise the Director on GABMP (CW) management.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActMedium (2)In general, the relationship between Tourism and Managers is believed to be quite good. However, the development of a new management plan in 2013 showed underlying differences in opinion. The Tourism group was vocally against the regulations to become any stricter than they already are. Tourism also questioned the Resource Managers’ decision to introduce special regions for scientific research (where tourism would be excluded).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActHigh (3)Although about fishing more generally (not specifically about the shrimp fishery), Honneland (2000) found that there was a high degree of trust between fishermen and the Coast Guard (a Resource Manager). Fishermen had less trust of the marine scientists/researchers (who would be associated with the Institute of Marine Research or maybe the Directorate of Fisheries – both part of the Resource Managers), and a few fishermen even complained that the researchers were often setting quotas too high, resulting in large fluctuations of the stock and quotas each year.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System High (3)The peer-review process increases trust, but with a number of competing researchers and various institutions, trust is not always high. Sanctuary users e.g. tourists walking along the coastal path have trust of the managers. The level of trust between managers and fishers is low but this is not relevant here.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanLow (1)Managers are essentially seeking to satisfy the same goals under the same guidelines. Best practices might be debated, but trust is common and peer-reviewed science adds to that trust. However, between fishermen and managers, trust is quite low.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentMedium (2)Would have been low at the start of the time period being coded, but appears to have improved by the end as there appears to be a lot less conflict occurring now and the PMB has been able to reach consensus for all management decision in the last few years (the IMA have not needed to meet) - so coded as medium
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceThe Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)High (3)No definite reason to distrust parties. When fishery is closed, clear why. No competing interests (managers working together to keep economic viability stable). Such high trust is attributed to success of fishery in Arkhipkin et al. 2013
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Governance SystemMedium (2)3.08/5: This value indicates that on average levels of trust in individuals from other communities falls somewhere between neither trust nor distrust (3) and Trust more than distrust (4).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanMissing
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemLow (1)It was designated by central governement in Jakarta without involvement of local communities who have sea tenure. This has led to conflicts and unhappiness. There is lack of trust between communities and governement and confusion/frustration between local government and central governement (e.g. local governement issuing commerical fishing permits in MPA when central have designated it a MPA)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentMedium (2)The VMS allows near real-time monitoring of the location of commercial fishing vessels, which helps determine if boats are adhering to the zoning regulations.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012High (3)As mentioned in the second Management Plan, stakeholder confidence in management rose with the establishment of a Consultative Committee of stakeholders that contributed effectively to management planning (National Parks 2005). During the time period of the first Management Plan discussions with industry resulted in increased compliance by the trawl fishery. Achievements and progress made in management the Park's resources, biodiversity and habitats during the time period of the first Management Plan were attributed to having effective working relations between the Australian and South Australian governments allowing for a successful cooperative management enterprise between the two governments through a Service Level Agreement. The different actor’s work together as part of the GABMP Steering and Consultative Committees to help in the development of the Management Plans and these Committees (which include representatives from the Commercial fishing sector) advise the Director on GABMP (CW) management.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanMissing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System High (3)The peer-review process increases trust between researchers, managers, and recreational users, but with a number of competing researchers and various institutions, trust is not always high. While groundfish fishermen are not included in this interaction, but have low trust levels with managers.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005Not Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanMissing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentMedium (2)Trust was certainly low at the start of this case - evidenced by protests and violence. However, consensus has been reached for most recent decisions (IMA have not needed to meet) - either trust has improved or external pressure for consensus has increased (political influence from mainland Ecuador - Alex Hearn pers comm), - the collapse of the fishery has certainly helped in this respect. Coded as medium.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Missing
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActMedium (2)In general, the relationship between Tourism and Managers is believed to be quite good. However, the development of a new management plan in 2013 showed underlying differences in opinion. The Tourism group was vocally against the regulations to become any stricter than they already are. Tourism also questioned the Resource Managers’ decision to introduce special regions for scientific research (where tourism would be excluded).
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Governance SystemMedium (2)3.47/5: This value indicates that on average levels of trust in individuals from other communities falls somewhere between neither trust nor distrust (3) and Trust more than distrust (4).
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanMedium (2)Historically distrustful, but understand and communicate with each other. Depends on personalities.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemLow (1)It was designated by central governement in Jakarta without involvement of local communities who have sea tenure. This has led to conflicts and unhappiness. There is lack of trust between communities and governement and confusion/frustration between local government and central governement (e.g. local governement issuing commerical fishing permits in MPA when central have designated it a MPA)
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Quota Management SystemHigh (3)Depends on personalities, but generally professional and communicate frequently.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Governance SystemLow (1)2.59/5: This value indicates that levels of trust in others falls somewhere between distrust more than trust (2) and neither trust nor distrust (3).
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Governance SystemMedium (2)3/5: This value indicates that on average members of the community neither trust nor distrust people from other villages (3).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005Medium (2)Between CORALINA and fishers there seems to be some. Otherwise, participatory process wold not be that successful.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanMissing