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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeInterval
Variable Component TypeEnvironmental Common
Variable KindComponent
ThemeSpatial (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionWhat is the approximate spatial extent of this environmental commons (put in terms of square kilometers)?
Select Options
ImportanceThe distribution of the commons has several implications for resource management and ecology including: island biogeography (Krebs, 2009), the availability of information and distribution of costs and benefits (Giordano, 2003), patch dynamics (Bakus, 2007; Holling and Meffe, 1996), and the number of users that may use a given resource (Agrawal and Goyal, 2001). Larger-scale commons are generally more difficult to manage because of the increased likelihood of negative externalities between distinct actor groups.

The spatial extent of a commons is either (1) the actual extent of a natural resource system or (2) the range of a natural resource unit or pollutant.


Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Holling, C.S., Meffe, G.K., 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conserv. Biol. 10.

Giordano, Mark. 2003. "The Geography of the Commons: The Role of Scale and Space." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93(2), 365-75.

Bakus, Gerald J.  2007. Quantitative Analysis of Marine Biological Communities: Field Biology and Environment. John Wiley & Sons.

Agrawal, Arun, and Sanjeev Goyal. 2001. “Group Size and Collective Action: Third-Party Monitoring in Common-Pool Resources.” Comparative Political Studies 34, no. 1: 63–93. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414001034001003.

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
Tigris watershed 
Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna 106000000 This is the approximate size of the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Although they are more concentrated in the Western Atlantic, they may occur throughout much of this range in small numbers.
Cenderwasih coral coverMissing
Cenderwasih green turtle13852 13852km2 - coded here are size of Cenderwasih NP. But found across the entire info-pacific ocean
New Zealand Sea Lion 
Mangrove forest in Bragança, Brazil420 The Caete-Teperacu RESEX (420 square kilometers) is a large coastal estuary forming a peninsula with numerous rivers and tributaries, and it is embedded in the world’s second largest continuous mangrove ecosystem spanning ~23,000 square kilometers.
Coral reefs, coast and small-island on and surrounding Gili Trawangan, Indonesia5 Island is ~4 square kilometers, coral reefs surround the island on all sides
Gulf of Nicoya fisheries1550
Galapagos Sea Cucumber133000 coded as the spatial extent of the GMR. Although Isostichopus fuscus is found across the Eastern Pacific http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5501e/y5501e0e.htm
Forests in Indonesia1904569 This is the land area of Indonesia. It appears that nearly all of Indonesia was forested into the early 20th century. During the time of study, the percentage of Indonesia that was forested has declined, but we view all of Indonesia as potentially forested. Global Forest Watch (2002) estimate that forests in Indonesia covered 1,622,900 km2 in 1950, 1,197,000 km2 in 1985, and 1,000,000 km2 in 1997. Hansen et al (2013) estimate total tree cover in Indonesia as 1,417,000 Km2, but estimate a deforestation rate during the period from 2005-2012 as 16,000 km2 per year.
Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna108000000 Approximate size of Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Although the Eastern Stock is more concentrated in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, Trans-Atlantic migration is known to occur at least in small numbers
Ozone Depleting Substances global in extent
Rhine Point source pollutants170000 Size of the catchment area of the Rhine
Rhine Non-point source pollutants170000 Size of the catchment area of the Rhine
GBR coral cover345000 Coral makes up 7% but is found across north-south and inshore-offshore components of the GBRMP.
GBR target fish 
GBR target fish345000 If we consider the target fish within the GBR Marine Protected Area.
Walt's forest 
Patagonian Toothfish  Patagonian toothfish are distributed throughout the Southern Ocean and are concentrated around sea mounts, continental shelves and islands. There are several different stocks including those found around Macquarie Island and HIMI. Individual toothfish are for the most part residents of a relatively small geographical area although some undergo extensive migrations (MSC 2012)
NWHI Lobster Fishery362061 This is the area of the NWHI protected area.
Macquarie Island Royal Penguin2000000 This rough estimate is derived from estimates by the Australian Antarctic Division and refers to areas used by penguins for feeding. Breeding is confined to Macquarie Island and the nearby Bishop and Clerk Islets.
Wakatobi coral cover37.5
Light Mantled Albatross1700000 Estimates suggest that birds from Macquarie island forage on average 1516 km from the island in the direction of Antarctica. Assuming a radius of 750km this corresponds to a total spatial extent of 1.7 million sq km, but species occurs in areas up to 44.3 million sq km. This estimate should be taken as the minimum spatial extent and values likely exceed this number considerably.
Wakatobi Green Turtle13900 13,900km2 - coded here are size of WNP. But found across the entire info-pacific ocean
Wakatobi fish spawning4 Relatively small size of spawning aggregations but more than one aggregation at different locations along the reef (3 main sites). Estimates for size of Pletropomus SPAG was 3-4 (Wilson et al 2010 SPC Bulletin).
Galapagos Green Turtle133000 Coded as extent of GMR - but Green turtles in Galapagos range around Central and South America.
NWHI Trophic Density362601 area of NWHI
Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)1429941 1429941 square kilometers (based on FAO total species distribution) In the Southwest Atlantic, D. gahi is widely distributed on the whole Patagonian Shelf, and found within waters of the Falkland (Malvinas) Current up to 38-40°S on the Argentinean Shelf. The squid is most abundant to the south, south-east and north-east of the Falkland Islands” (Arkhipkin et al. 2013a). Lives on shelves around southern tip of South America and in the Falkland Islands- most abundant in the Falkland Islands (Arkhipkin et al. 2013a).
Raja Ampat Reef Fish 11859 This is the spatial area of the Raja Ampat region that is covered by the marine protected area.
Raja Ampat Coral Cover11859 Coded as spatial extent of MPA network (not the area of reefs)
King Penguin20000 Based on estimates from Bird Life International, King Penguins' extent of occurrence is <20,000km-2 (Bird Life 2015).
Galapagos Sharks133000 Coded as extent of GMR, but can migrate long distances to other eastern pacific islands
Raja Ampat Green Turtle11859 Coded as the extent of the Raja Ampat network, but they are distributed in tropical and sub-tropical waters
NWHI Green Turtle362000 362000km2 is the area of NWHI
California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health2.1 Rocky shoreline is about 56% of the Monterey Bay Sanctuary shoreline (EIS, 2008), so covers about 156 miles, or 251 kilometers, of the Monterey Sanctuary. While none of Cordell Bank is covered by rocky shoreline, the activities in the bank could influence this ecosystem, particularly oil spills. Although a number has not been found, the amount of rocky shores along the Gulf of the Farallones coast was 22% before 2015. The expansion added about 68 miles along the shoreline, coming to a very rough about 170 miles of shoreline. If the 22% is extended to the expansion, this would come out to about 38 miles, or 61 kilometers, of rocky shoreline. This is a total of 194 miles, or 213 kilometers of rocky shoreline. If we say an estimate of average rocky shoreline width (from splash zone to low zone) of 30 feet, that is about .01 kilometers, which is a total of about 2.1 square kilometers.
California Humpback Whale395630 115,200 nautical miles roughly according to Calambokidis et al. 2000.
California Groundfish Habitat16588 A rough estimate based on the EFH map: 60% of area: so 60% of 10,675 square miles, 27,648 square kilometers = 16,588 square kilometers Cordell Bank: 1,286 square miles Gulf of the Farallones: 3,295 square miles Monterey Bay: 6,094 square miles
Community D Fish Resources108.76
Community A Fish Resources261.6
Community C Fish Resources537.61
Community B Fish Resources261.6
Svalbard Polar Bear15000000 Polar bears are found throughout the Arctic in regions with seasonal sea-ice.
Seaflower coral reefsMissingNO DATA
Seaflower groupers0 Wherever there are coral reefs in the Atlantic ocean.
Svalbard Beluga10000000 In relation to the Svalbard population, belugas are found throughout the polar seas, except in the centre of the Arctic Ocean where there is (or at least used to be) permanent sea ice.
Community G Fish Resources4.78
Community F Fish Resources382.88
Community E Fish Resources1344.51 LMMA is 1344.51 square kilometers
Community H Fish Resources5.48
Svalbard Shrimp2000000 2,000,000 km2 is roughly the size of the Barents Sea and the region around Svalbard.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale19395 This is the approximate spatial extent of the GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) (2012) that this environmental commons uses but Australian populations of the southern right whale move between Antarctica and southern Australia during their seasonal migration.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Benthos19395 This is the approximate spatial extent of the GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) that this environmental commons is found in similar benthic communities are found throughout the GAB region.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna19395 This is the approximate spatial extent of the GABMP (CW) (2012) that this environmental commons uses but SBT are highly migratory and are found throughout the southern hemisphere oceans between 30–50° S.
Cenderwasih target fish13852 13852km2 is the area of the Cenderwasih National Park. The entire Bay is much larger.
GBR Green Turtle Green Turtles are found throughout tropical oceans around the world. Exact migration routes are unknown, but turtles found in the GBR may travel long distances to Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea , and Indonesia (GBRMPA [online]).
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion 
Svalbard Kittiwake52365 52,365km2 is the spatial extent of the Svalbard MPAs. It's distribution size is: 1,080,000km2 (http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3255)
Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)4249084 AREA: 4,517,105 km2 – LAND (268,021km2) = 4,249,084 km2 Nabis Map (MPI 2016)
California market squid (Loligo opalescens)900649 From Baja Mexico to 55degrees North in Alaska, about 200 nm out from the coast 900,649km 2
Lombok aquaculture irrigation canalsMissing