|Variable Component Type||Environmental Common|
|Theme||Spatial (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||What is the approximate spatial extent of this environmental commons (put in terms of square kilometers)?|
|Importance||The distribution of the commons has several implications for resource management and ecology including: island biogeography (Krebs, 2009), the availability of information and distribution of costs and benefits (Giordano, 2003), patch dynamics (Bakus, 2007; Holling and Meffe, 1996), and the number of users that may use a given resource (Agrawal and Goyal, 2001). Larger-scale commons are generally more difficult to manage because of the increased likelihood of negative externalities between distinct actor groups.|
The spatial extent of a commons is either (1) the actual extent of a natural resource system or (2) the range of a natural resource unit or pollutant.
|Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||106000000||This is the approximate size of the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Although they are more concentrated in the Western Atlantic, they may occur throughout much of this range in small numbers.|
|Galapagos Sea Cucumber||133000||coded as the spatial extent of the GMR. Although Isostichopus fuscus is found across the Eastern Pacific http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5501e/y5501e0e.htm|
|Forests in Indonesia||1904569||This is the land area of Indonesia. It appears that nearly all of Indonesia was forested into the early 20th century. During the time of study, the percentage of Indonesia that was forested has declined, but we view all of Indonesia as potentially forested. Global Forest Watch (2002) estimate that forests in Indonesia covered 1,622,900 km2 in 1950, 1,197,000 km2 in 1985, and 1,000,000 km2 in 1997. Hansen et al (2013) estimate total tree cover in Indonesia as 1,417,000 Km2, but estimate a deforestation rate during the period from 2005-2012 as 16,000 km2 per year.|
|Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||108000000||Approximate size of Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Although the Eastern Stock is more concentrated in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, Trans-Atlantic migration is known to occur at least in small numbers|
|Ozone Depleting Substances||global in extent|
|Rhine Point source pollutants||170000||Size of the catchment area of the Rhine|
|Rhine Non-point source pollutants||170000||Size of the catchment area of the Rhine|
|GBR coral cover||345000||Coral makes up 7% but is found across north-south and inshore-offshore components of the GBRMP.|
|GBR target fish|
|GBR target fish||345000||If we consider the target fish within the GBR Marine Protected Area.|
|Patagonian Toothfish||Patagonian toothfish are distributed throughout the Southern Ocean and are concentrated around sea mounts, continental shelves and islands. There are several different stocks including those found around Macquarie Island and HIMI. Individual toothfish are for the most part residents of a relatively small geographical area although some undergo extensive migrations (MSC 2012)|
|NWHI Lobster Fishery||362061||This is the area of the NWHI protected area.|
|Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||2000000||This rough estimate is derived from estimates by the Australian Antarctic Division and refers to areas used by penguins for feeding. Breeding is confined to Macquarie Island and the nearby Bishop and Clerk Islets.|
|Light Mantled Albatross||1700000||Estimates suggest that birds from Macquarie island forage on average 1516 km from the island in the direction of Antarctica. Assuming a radius of 750km this corresponds to a total spatial extent of 1.7 million sq km, but species occurs in areas up to 44.3 million sq km. This estimate should be taken as the minimum spatial extent and values likely exceed this number considerably.|
|Wakatobi coral cover||37.5|
|Wakatobi Green Turtle||13900||13,900km2 - coded here are size of WNP. But found across the entire info-pacific ocean|
|Wakatobi fish spawning||4||Relatively small size of spawning aggregations but more than one aggregation at different locations along the reef (3 main sites). Estimates for size of Pletropomus SPAG was 3-4 (Wilson et al 2010 SPC Bulletin).|
|Galapagos Green Turtle||133000||Coded as extent of GMR - but Green turtles in Galapagos range around Central and South America.|
|NWHI Trophic Density||362601||area of NWHI|
|Raja Ampat Reef Fish||11859||This is the spatial area of the Raja Ampat region that is covered by the marine protected area.|
|Raja Ampat Coral Cover||11859||Coded as spatial extent of MPA network (not the area of reefs)|
|Galapagos Sharks||133000||Coded as extent of GMR, but can migrate long distances to other eastern pacific islands|
|Raja Ampat Green Turtle||11859||Coded as the extent of the Raja Ampat network, but they are distributed in tropical and sub-tropical waters|
|NWHI Green Turtle||362000||362000km2 is the area of NWHI|
|California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||2.1||Rocky shoreline is about 56% of the Monterey Bay Sanctuary shoreline (EIS, 2008), so covers about 156 miles, or 251 kilometers, of the Monterey Sanctuary. While none of Cordell Bank is covered by rocky shoreline, the activities in the bank could influence this ecosystem, particularly oil spills. Although a number has not been found, the amount of rocky shores along the Gulf of the Farallones coast was 22% before 2015. The expansion added about 68 miles along the shoreline, coming to a very rough about 170 miles of shoreline. If the 22% is extended to the expansion, this would come out to about 38 miles, or 61 kilometers, of rocky shoreline. This is a total of 194 miles, or 213 kilometers of rocky shoreline. If we say an estimate of average rocky shoreline width (from splash zone to low zone) of 30 feet, that is about .01 kilometers, which is a total of about 2.1 square kilometers.|
|California Humpback Whale||395630||115,200 nautical miles roughly according to Calambokidis et al. 2000.|
|California Groundfish Habitat||16588||A rough estimate based on the EFH map: 60% of area: so 60% of 10,675 square miles, 27,648 square kilometers = 16,588 square kilometers Cordell Bank: 1,286 square miles Gulf of the Farallones: 3,295 square miles Monterey Bay: 6,094 square miles|
|Community D Fish Resources||108.76|
|Community A Fish Resources||261.6|
|Community C Fish Resources||537.61|
|Community B Fish Resources||261.6|
|Svalbard Polar Bear||15000000||Polar bears are found throughout the Arctic in regions with seasonal sea-ice.|
|Seaflower coral reefs||Missing||NO DATA|
|Seaflower groupers||0||Wherever there are coral reefs in the Atlantic ocean.|
|Svalbard Beluga||10000000||In relation to the Svalbard population, belugas are found throughout the polar seas, except in the centre of the Arctic Ocean where there is (or at least used to be) permanent sea ice.|
|Community G Fish Resources||4.78|
|Community E Fish Resources||1344.51||LMMA is 1344.51 square kilometers|
|Community F Fish Resources||382.88|
|Community H Fish Resources||5.48|
|Svalbard Shrimp||2000000||2,000,000 km2 is roughly the size of the Barents Sea and the region around Svalbard.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||19395||This is the approximate spatial extent of the GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) (2012) that this environmental commons uses but Australian populations of the southern right whale move between Antarctica and southern Australia during their seasonal migration.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Benthos||19395||This is the approximate spatial extent of the GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) that this environmental commons is found in similar benthic communities are found throughout the GAB region.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||19395||This is the approximate spatial extent of the GABMP (CW) (2012) that this environmental commons uses but SBT are highly migratory and are found throughout the southern hemisphere oceans between 30–50° S.|
|King Penguin||20000||Based on estimates from Bird Life International, King Penguins' extent of occurrence is <20,000km-2 (Bird Life 2015).|
|GBR Green Turtle||Green Turtles are found throughout tropical oceans around the world. Exact migration routes are unknown, but turtles found in the GBR may travel long distances to Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea , and Indonesia (GBRMPA [online]).|
|Cenderwasih coral cover||Missing|
|Cenderwasih green turtle||13852||13852km2 - coded here are size of Cenderwasih NP. But found across the entire info-pacific ocean|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion|
|Svalbard Kittiwake||52365||52,365km2 is the spatial extent of the Svalbard MPAs. It's distribution size is: 1,080,000km2 (http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3255)|
|Cenderwasih target fish||13852||13852km2 is the area of the Cenderwasih National Park. The entire Bay is much larger.|
|Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||1429941||1429941 square kilometers (based on FAO total species distribution) In the Southwest Atlantic, D. gahi is widely distributed on the whole Patagonian Shelf, and found within waters of the Falkland (Malvinas) Current up to 38-40°S on the Argentinean Shelf. The squid is most abundant to the south, south-east and north-east of the Falkland Islands” (Arkhipkin et al. 2013a). Lives on shelves around southern tip of South America and in the Falkland Islands- most abundant in the Falkland Islands (Arkhipkin et al. 2013a).|
|Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||4249084||AREA: 4,517,105 km2 – LAND (268,021km2) = 4,249,084 km2 Nabis Map (MPI 2016)|
|California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||900649||From Baja Mexico to 55degrees North in Alaska, about 200 nm out from the coast 900,649km 2|
|New Zealand Sea Lion|
|Mangrove forest in Bragança, Brazil||420||The Caete-Teperacu RESEX (420 square kilometers) is a large coastal estuary forming a peninsula with numerous rivers and tributaries, and it is embedded in the world’s second largest continuous mangrove ecosystem spanning ~23,000 square kilometers.|
|Lombok aquaculture irrigation canals||Missing|
|Coral reefs, coast and small-island on and surrounding Gili Trawangan, Indonesia||5||Island is ~4 square kilometers, coral reefs surround the island on all sides|
|Gulf of Nicoya fisheries||1550|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.