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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionHow dependent are the members of the group on this commons for their cultural well-being?
Select Options1 Not dependent or Slightly dependent, 2 Moderately dependent, 3 Very dependent
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
Importance"Cultural dependence on a commons provides a glimpse into aspects of an actor group that encourage sustainable resource usage beyond mere economic drivers. Cultural influences could include the importance of a resource in their religion or spiritual belief system, in aspects of their everyday life, and may often go beyond use values. Resource dependency as a part of a group’s culture has been shown to drive decision-making regarding the governance of a resource in ways that go beyond governance of a resource driven by purely economic or use criteria. While not universally a driver of sustainability, cultural dependence often provides a strong defense of sustainable usage. It may help promote legitimacy, strong monitoring (no little need for external monitoring due to strong social norms for acceptable practice), and an alternative set of sanctions that include shaming or ostracism (Berkes et al. 1994; Gibson and Koontz 1997)."
Definition

"Cultural Dependence refers to the extent to which members of the actor group rely on the commons to maintain their culture. For pollutants this would mean that they are culturally reliant on the process that produces the pollutant (e.g. swidden agriculturalists produce smoke which contributes to air pollution) Slightly dependent: The actor group derives no or very little of its cultural well being from the use of this commons. Very Dependent: The actor group derives most or all of their cultural well being from the use of this commons."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersVery dependent (3)long history and cultural associated with the sea
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HMissing
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D 
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenModerately dependent (2)Many fishers were not orignally from Galapagos and moved to the islands to exploit the fishery. Many have now moved into the tourism sector.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Fairly new (1982) fishery, not critical for cultural well-being. However, fishery plays large role in current economy, high economic dependence.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersVery dependent (3)long history and culture associated with the sea, although they also farm.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)The Norwegian shrimp fishery in the Barents Sea and the Svalbard zone started in 1970.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BMissing
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C 
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A 
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersVery dependent (3)traditionally sea nomads with long history and cultural associated with the sea
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersVery dependent (3)long history and cultural associated with the sea, although they also farm.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersModerately dependent (2)Humpback whales have long provided cultural services to the residents and tourists of this area.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenModerately dependent (2)Many groundfish fishermen self identify with their profession as passion, and see it as more than a source of income.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)There is no long history in the Galapagos, and no local connections to green turtles
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Light-mantled albatross have limited cultural value to toothfish fishers.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersModerately dependent (2)Some towns in south Australia (e.g. Port Lincoln) are built around SBT fishing.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Not dependent on the southern right whale. But some towns in south Australia (e.g. Port Lincoln) are built around SBT fishing.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FMissing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersVery dependent (3)traditionally sea nomads with long history and cultural associated with the sea
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersVery dependent (3)long history and culture associated with the sea, although they also farm and many communtiies were originally hill tribes.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersVery dependent (3)Part of their tradition and identity.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EMissing
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersVery dependent (3)long history and culture associated with the sea, although they also farm and many communtiies were originally hill tribes.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersVery dependent (3)traditionally sea nomads with long history and cultural associated with the sea
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenModerately dependent (2)Historical ties of community to this industry. Not critical, but important. Fishery was established in Monterey Bay in the mid-1800s (Vojkovich 1998). Was primarily Chinese dry-squid fishery, until Italian community introduced the lampara net in the early 1900s.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Relatively new fishery.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersVery dependent (3)Claim that other leisure activities cannot replace recreational fishing
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Not dependent on the Australian sealion. But some towns in south Australia (e.g. Port Lincoln) are built around SBT fishing.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Light mantled albatross have little to no cultural value to toothfish fishers.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersModerately dependent (2)Fishers identify strongly with being a fisher.