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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionAre sanctions applied by and to the members of this group for violations of rules regarding extraction or emission? And if so, are these sanctions graduated (increasing with severity and repetition of offenses)?
Select OptionsGraduated sanctions, Non-graduated sanctions, No sanctions
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceSanctioning deters participants from excessive violations of rules. This should contribute to the effectiveness and robustness of the governance systems (Cox et al. 2010). When sanctions are enforced, resource (over-)users or pollution emitters are obliged to internalize some of the negative externalities they produce on other actors. This variable is related to one of the design principles.
Definition

Sanctions can include a diversity of forms of social shunning, fines, extra regulations or the complete prohibition of resource use or pollution emissions (Ostrom 1990).

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
EnforcementYes (or substituted with external sanctioning)
CBNRM design principlesGraduated sanctions
Parametric managementYes

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HNon-graduated sanctions
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DNon-graduated sanctionsThere is evidence that one or more members of this user group informally monitors the behavior of others and reports offenders for potential sanctioning.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersGraduated sanctionsThrough traditional management there will be some informal monitoring of resource use, and there would be sanctions applied by e.g. the village cheif
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersGraduated sanctionsThrough traditional management there will be some informal monitoring of resource use, and there would be sanctions applied by e.g. the village cheif
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNo sanctionsNo self sanctioning - although I would assume there'd be some informal reporting and that the AECO could revoke membership?
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNo sanctionsNo self-sanctions
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNo sanctionsFishers do not sanction one another
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenNo sanctionsNo self-sanctions
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ANon-graduated sanctions
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BNon-graduated sanctionsThere is evidence that members of this groups informally monitor the use of fish resources within the LMMA.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNo sanctionsFishers do not sanction one another
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CNon-graduated sanctionsOne or more respondents indicate that they informally monitor the use of fish resources.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNo sanctionsNo self sanctioning - Fishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013). Officially there are graduated sanctions applied by management, but in reality these are rarely applied. The park rangers can apprehend but not prosecute - only the police can do this, and police have a bad reputation so local violators are unlikely to be handed over to the police (Julian Clifton pers comm).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersNo sanctionsNo self-sanctions
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNo sanctionsNo self-sanctioning - Fishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013). Sanctions are applied (in theory) by the management actor
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNo sanctionsFishers do not sanction one another
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorGraduated sanctionsIn case of a proven infraction, the Directorate of the Galapagos National Park begins a legal process against the person or company liable for the infraction. The rights for tourism operations are removed upon the third offense.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNo sanctionsGroup members do not sanction one another for violation of bycatch rules.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo sanctionsNo self-sanctions
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNo sanctionsFishers do not sanction one another
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersGraduated sanctionsYes as communities/fishers are responsisble for mangement, including traditional management there will be a range of sanctions from those imposed by the village chief to external sanctions
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FNon-graduated sanctions
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNo sanctionsFishers do not sanction one another.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo sanctionsNo self-sanctions
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNo sanctionsNo self sanctioning - although I would assume there'd be some informal reporting and that the AECO could revoke membership?
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ENon-graduated sanctions
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenNo sanctionsNo sanctions have been successfully applied. No informal sanctioning - even with GPS trackers and on-board observers fishermen were fishing in no-take areas (G. Edgar pers comm)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNo sanctionsFishers do not sanction one another
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GNon-graduated sanctions
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNo sanctionsNo self-sanctioning - Fishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013). Sanctions are applied (in theory) by the management actor
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNo sanctionsFishers do not sanction one another
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenNo sanctionsFishers do not impose sanctions.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersNo sanctionsFishermen do not have the authority to give sanctions, that authority is by management only. However, fishermen can be given sanctions by managers.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersNon-graduated sanctionsLikely yes but unsure. Understood that keep everything between the company rather than use the legal system.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNo sanctions
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNo sanctionsNo evidence that commercial fishers sanction each other
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNo sanctionsHIMI toothfish fishers do not sanction one another for violation of seabird bycatch rules.