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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeOutcomes (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionTo what extent has this governance system achieved its goals in relation to the environmental commons?
Select Options1 Failed to meet goals, 2 Mixed effects on goals, 3 Met goals
Unit
Role
ImportanceOne of the core interests of this research project is the effect of governance on commons. Although we are often interested in the condition of resources over time; environmental commons are often managed with a number of different goals in mind, both social and ecological. This question therefore is concerned with the performance of environmental governance systems in relation to the goals that groups set for the management of those resources. It is therefore possible that a resource might experience considerable declines, but still be considered to have met goals.
Definition

The governance system effect variable measures whether a governance system has met, failed to meet, or had mixed effects in relation to the goals 

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection Act3 Met goalsPolar bear protected, and populations probably stable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection Act3 Met goalsThe shrimp stock in the Barents Sea has been at a relatively high level since 2005, and ICES has the last years recommended an annual catch up to 60 000 tons. Due to market challenges and low prices, the total annual catch has been just over 20 000 tons the recent years, only slightly more than a third of the scientists' recommendations.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 20063 Met goalsFishing closed in 2011. Trophic structure continued to be maintained.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 20123 Met goalsThe management plan states it aims to 'protect habitat for the Australian sea lion' - this has been achieved - although there are no major threats to the actual habitat of the sea lions so this is protected by default. There is no specific goal on Australian sea lion populations (otherwise wouldn't have met goals as population has declined).
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance System3 Met goalsCoral cover remains stable across the region and local people have more seure marine tenure
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-current3 Met goalsAppears to be have been no further declines in fish spawning numbers
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-current2 Mixed effects on goalsNo specific target for green turtles in the management plan. In line with the vague goals, turtles are still present and nesting beaches are protected.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance System3 Met goalsPoaching has been significanlty reduced - on one rookery poaching has been reduced from 95% to 0 (CI Seascape Factsheet 2008). Nesting females are increasing.
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceThe Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)3 Met goalsThe primary management objectives are: 1) To conserve the resource, and thus ensure its continued productivity. 2) To maintain the economic viability of the fisheries as a whole. 3) To enable the Falklands to enjoy greater benefits from the resource. (Barton 2002) Yes met goals in that population is still productive, economic is still viable, and greater community is profiting from the industry (e.g. fish license fees pay for roads). ITQ goals: Increased cooperation with industry on research and development, enforcement, marketing, and environmental issues, increased compliance, increased environmental stewardship (Harte and Barton 2007a). Primary goal: Stability. Met.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 20051 Failed to meet goalsCoral cover continued to decline since the implementation of the MPA
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan 3 Met goalsThe nature reserve management plan has met its goals in relation to the management of light-mantled albatross. Nesting sites have been protected and threats from invasive species have been addressed in recent years.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan3 Met goals
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System 3 Met goalsCondition report shows how many goals have been reached.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan3 Met goalsGoals for the toothfish fishery management plan have been met.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan3 Met goalsGoals for the marine park in relation to toothfish fishery have been met.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan3 Met goalsThe marine park management plan has achieved its goals to reduce and limit threats within the MPA.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan 3 Met goalsThe Nature Reserve Management Plan has achieved its goal in reducing threats to royal penguins and other birds.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-current3 Met goalsNo specific goal for turtle populations established in the management plan other than an understanding that turtles are important for tourism and that the Galapagos is an important area for turtles. Populations of green turtles are stable, so in terms of maintaining turtles for tourism this 'goal' has been achieved.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan3 Met goalsWithin the snapshot of this management plan, light-mantled albatross have seldom to not been caught or injured in the HIMI toothfish fishery.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System 3 Met goalsCondition report shows how many goals have been reached.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan 3 Met goalsFishing is not permitted in reserve; toothfish stocks remains within targets.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan3 Met goalsManagement Plan goals have been met.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-current1 Failed to meet goalsDuring this time period the fishery has completely crashed and the brown sea cucmber is 'economically extinct'
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance system3 Met goalsThe aims relating to fish are: • Strengthen the management of the region to ensure the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems • Strengthen protection, law enforcement and rehabilitation efforts preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem resources And these have probably be met. The "existence of Cendrawasih Bay National Park" is noted as a factor of success in the management plan.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 20063 Met goalsLobster populations have not improved, but as this is no longer a fished species and the fishery is highly unlikely to ever be opened again it is not a management priority. Not enough known about lobster ecology/sub-populations etc. to understand why populations aren't recovering. Lobster research and monitoring was fishery-dependent research so stopped when the fishery closed and it was clear was unlikely to be re-opened.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-current3 Met goalsThe 2004 re-zoning plan protects the most important nesting areas, along with 5-10km of the surrounding ocean, in addition to 20% of the main foraging areas. Since turtles show strong site fidelity to nesting areas, protecting important nesting sites therefore protects a critical stage of the turtle’s life cycle. As a migratory species, the GBR does not encompass the entire range of green turtles, but it does protect a substantial amount of important habitat - so coded as met goals, but it is acknowledged that GBR is not adequately addressing threats. However, Even with the recent management initiatives to reduce threats and improve resilience, the overall outlook for the Great Barrier Reef is poor, has worsened since 2009 and is expected to further deteriorate in the future.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan2 Mixed effects on goalsThe management plan has achieved its goals in protecting the Penguins, but not in research and monitoring of the population. Note that protection has largely been by default and may have occurred without the plan in place due to remoteness and inaccessibility of the Heard and McDonald Islands.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 20063 Met goalsNo take area and population of green turtles increasing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan2 Mixed effects on goalsDe facto protection of land-based breeding sites has been achieved due to remoteness (isolation) and lack of human visitation more than as a result of active management. The no take marine reserve provides some protection of foraging grounds, but was not heavily fished prior to becoming a no take area. (fisheries management has provided protection, but that does not fall under the Marine Reserve Management Plan)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 20123 Met goalsSouthern right whale populations are increasing in the area, and probably less interactions with fishing vessles/entanglement due to marine mammal protection zone. Population increase is more likely due to the international ban on whaling, not the impact of this governance system. "Although several countries have designated marine protected areas that include right whale breeding habitat, it is not always clear what additional level of protection is offered over and above that applying to whales in the country’s waters generally" IUCN redlist page
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 20122 Mixed effects on goalsThe management of SBT isn't directly linked to the GAB management plan - so no real effect
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-current2 Mixed effects on goalsGoal to conserve the biodiversity and function. Some shark populations appear stable whereas some have declined - so coded as mixed effects.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-current3 Met goalsmanagement target for coral is to maintain existing levels of hard coral cover (which are estimated to be ~35–40%) - no evidence of major declines in coral cover
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan2 Mixed effects on goalsThe management plan has helped recover some stocks, but not all. Some might argue it has had mixed social benefits.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-current1 Failed to meet goalsCoral cover has continued to decline. The current governance system appears to be unable to deal effectively with external influence from land-use change and run-off, coastal development, and climate change.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan3 Met goalsLight mantled albatross have not been caught as bycatch in the fishery; interactions have been minimal.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection Act3 Met goalsBreeding grounds protected
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan3 Met goalsThe goals of the MSFMP are to manage the market squid resource to ensure long term resource conservation and sustainability, reduce the potential for overfishing, and institute a framework for management that will be responsive to environmental and socioeconomic changes. Fishery has been economically profitable and stable, not reaching catch limit.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance system2 Mixed effects on goalsThe main aims for the coral reefs/biodiversity of the park are: • Strengthen the management of the region to ensure the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems • Strengthen protection, law enforcement and rehabilitation efforts preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem resources And these have probably be met. The "existence of Cendrawasih Bay National Park" is noted as a factor of success in the management plan.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Quota Management System3 Met goalsIn the current fisheries legislation, the overriding goal is to achieve sustainable utilisation of fisheries resources. In reality, goal is to minimize sea lion capture and numbers have been decreasing, so yes met. Also secondary goal is to keep TACC stable, and this has been met. Observed capture rate (sea lions per 100 trawls) and estimated sea lion captures have decreased (2016 FAP). Interactions have fluctuated.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance System3 Met goalsFish biomass reported to be higher in no-take zones compared to take, and an increase in predators has been recorded (M. Erdmann, pers comm).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-current3 Met goalsThe governance system has largely met its goal to improve ecological outcomes. It does not necessarily prioritise and track social outcomes.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan2 Mixed effects on goalsCommercial fishing (for Icefish and Toothfish) is considered the main potential threat to the conservation values of the HIMI region. Having a no take area in the MPA (and having strict fisheries management rules outside the MPA) preserves some of the conservation values of the MPA. However, the MPA management plan also includes research and monitoring focused on better understanding foraging areas of land-based predators (mammals and seabirds) and their potential interaction with HIMI fisheries, including toothfish. Most of this monitoring and research has yet to be conducted.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 20052 Mixed effects on goalsBased on the biological monitoring report from 2014, there was no statistical difference in the abundance of groupers between 2000 and 2014. However, the authors not the that this is largely due to high data variability as the biomass of groupers in 2000 was twice as high as in 2014. This is only for Old Providence and Santa Catalina.