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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionWhat actions does this actor group take with respect to this commons?
Select OptionsExtraction, Extraction monitoring, Extraction conflict resolution, Extraction rule-making, Extraction sanctioning, Trading, Trading monitoring,, Trading conflict resolution, Trading rule-making, Trading sanctioning, Consumption, other
Unit
Role
ImportanceIt is important to understand what actions an actor group takes with respect to a resource in order to tie attributes of that actor group back to outcomes for the commons.
Definition

Specifies the actions that this actor group takes with respect to an environmental commons

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaExtractionThe primary activity of large extractive industries in Indonesian forests during this time period was extraction - including logging, and also mining and in the later part of this time period, creating plantations.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesConsumptionWhy can't I choose multiple options for this variable?
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers["other"]Since humpbacks are neither extracted nor traded, researchers instead monitor and observe the commons.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)Extraction rule-makingneed to be able to select multiple.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District GovernmentsExtraction rule-makingProbably also other forms of rule making?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)Extraction rule-makingThis needs to be able to select multiple - these folks make rules bout everything!
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesConsumptionselect multiple
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursExtractionNeed to allow to select multiple. they also trade.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINA[]Engages in rule making regarding the use of the commons (one of those uses is extraction of resources)
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in IndonesiaExtraction monitoringprobably others as well - need to be able to select multiple.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Extraction rule-making
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Extraction rule-makingICCAT performs many governance functions, but arguably the most important of which is rulemaking
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaExtractionAlso has other roles - i.e. trading, so should add that when variable is fixed.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish Fishermen["Extraction"]
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States ["Extraction monitoring ", "Extraction sanctioning "]Nation States undertake a variety of activities related to the Montreal Protocol. Arguably the most important of these is monitoring emissions within their territories, and reporting that information to the Ozone Secretariat.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersExtraction monitoringAlthough Eastern member states undertake several governance activities, the most important of these is monitoring compliance with rules.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers["Extraction "]This group produces ODS for sale and use in a variety of industrial and consumer products.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Extraction rule-makingAlthough ICCAT peforms many governance functions, their most important role is selecting quotas, rules and assigning quotas among member states.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Secretariat["Extraction monitoring "]The Ozone Secretariat performs many tasks with regards to ODS emissions, however its most important task is to monitor implementation of the protocol. It also makes administrative arrangements for meetings of the parties, shares data among those parties, and represents the parties at other relevant international and regional meetings.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersExtraction monitoringAlthough Nation states undertake several activities in order to implement the ICCAT governance system. Arguably their most important role is to monitor use of Eastern Tuna
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsotherEmission of pollutants
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers["Extraction monitoring ", "Extraction rule-making ", "Extraction sanctioning "]
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersotherRecreational fishers don't directly extract corals, but extract fish from coral reef systems
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersExtraction rule-making
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersExtraction monitoringICCAT Western members are responsible for multiple activities in the commons. However, monitoring is likely the most important of these activities.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersExtraction
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers["Extraction", "Trading"]
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers["Extraction "]Industrial producers emit ozone depleting substances.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction sanctioning", "other"]Do education and awareness raising with communities about damage to corals which we have included as Extraction conflict resolution. Also survey stakeholder perceptions of management.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States ["Extraction monitoring ", "Extraction rule-making ", "Extraction sanctioning "]Nation states can make and implement rules regarding ODS emissions, but they are uncoordinated.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers[""]
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managers["Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction sanctioning", "other"]Sign up to global bans on turtle extraction and so enforce and sanction against illegal harvesting. Also provide education and awareness which we have included as conflict resolution.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managers["Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]Regulate the extraction of fish from spawning aggregations, and aim to raise education and awareness which we have included as conflict resolution
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan Fishermen["Extraction", "Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "Trading"]Taregt sea cucmber for sale; monitor their own catch; involved in the rule-making through representation on the participatory management board of the GMR.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational Users[]Observation
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks ["Extraction rule-making", "other"]Rule making, management and monitoring
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA[]Protection
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship ["Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning", "other"]Main management organisation
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Extraction", "Consumption"]Overall low catch and use of turtles. But if caught (more likely as by-catch in nets) then majority of catch is consumed locally, but some trade in turtles (even though export is officially banned) Clifton 2013.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship ["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning", "other"]This actor group manages all action plans and strategies that contribute to the conservation of the NWHI. Any extraction for research purposes must be permitted through the monument.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector["other"]Access - to beaches and tourism zones, including dive sites.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "Trading rule-making"]Turtle harvest and trade is banned. Managers impose rules based on international treaties (e.g. CITES). Lack of capacity for sanctioning rule breakers
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Extraction", "Consumption"]The Bajau are almost entirely dependent on marine resources for income (Cullen 2010). This applies to the fisheries in general not just spawning fish.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Managers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making"]This group creates rules and monitors interactions with royal penguins within the marine park and nature reserve.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship ["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning", "other"]Governing organisation - set rules for the MPA (all no take), and enforce
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Extraction"]Some direct extraction via coral mining, and extraction of fish from coral reef systems sometimes using destructive gear so some indirect effects on the common.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector["other"]Management through representation on PMB and advisory role on IMA
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Extraction monitoring"]Record by-catch of sea lions
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "other"]Management. Local monitoring of MPAs inlcuding ensuring people follow rules
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["other"]Avoidance and reporting of interactions (monitoring)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers["other"]Observation
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Extraction", "Extraction rule-making", "Consumption"]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction sanctioning", "other"]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Tourism["other"]indirect use
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers["Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning", "other"]Management, monitoring
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning", "other"]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries Agencies[]PFMC and CDFW dictate spatial, temporal, and gear-restriction rules on the groundfish fishery. Monitors are on every vessel and at landing sites. When rules are broken, these agencies have to authority to impose sanctions.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism["other"]Viewing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managers["Extraction rule-making", "other"]Managers impose rules based on international agreements, specific regulations part of the Galapagos Special Law. Shark fishing, transport, and sale of all sharks and their products is banned - the maximum governing authority of the GMR ratified the original Ecuadorian ban in 2000.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Managers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making"]Extraction is prohibited and managers set rules for the ways in which tourists and researchers might interact with light mantled albatross and other seabirds.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin Foundation[]Monitoring
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINA["other"]monitoring
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource Managers["Extraction", "Extraction monitoring", "Extraction conflict resolution"]Extraction monitoring - shooting of bears must be reported Extraction Conflict resolution - Governor is the Chief of Police on Svalbard with the ability to prosecute environmental violations Extraction - will kill bears that have attacked humans; sometimes extract bears for scientific purposes. Note: the Extraction Rule Making (the ban on hunting) was instituted by the central Norwegian government.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks ["Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction sanctioning", "other"]Protection and management, including mitigating ship strikes and tourism - coded as extraction conflict resolution
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers["", "Extraction"]Toothfish fishers might capture light-mantled albatross as part of the toothfish fishery; but it is not targeted and they actively aim to limit any potential interactions.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic Division["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making"]The AAD makes rules about interactions with and protection of albatross within the MPA (applying to managers, scientists, tourists). There is no extraction allowed.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers["Extraction", "Consumption"]
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers["Extraction"]Fishers extract toothfish using longlines, trawlers and pots. Over the period of the snapshot, fishers have moved from extracting exclusively with trawlers to extracting primarily with longlines. Longlines were introduced in 2003 and pots were introduced in 2009, though fishing via pots remains at a very low level (10-39 tonnes; CCAMLR 2013).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers["Extraction monitoring ", "Extraction conflict resolution ", "Extraction rule-making ", "Extraction sanctioning ", "Trading monitoring, ", "Trading conflict resolution ", " Trading rule-making ", " Trading sanctioning "]
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Managers["", "Extraction monitoring"]Extraction conflict resolution, Extraction rule-making, Extraction sanctioning, Extraction monitoring
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishers["Extraction", "Extraction monitoring", "Consumption"]There might be some other ones but unsure at this time.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource Managers[""]Extraction Conflict resolution - Governor is the Chief of Police on Svalbard with the ability to prosecute environmental violations Extraction rule-making - All traffic is forbidden in bird sanctuaries between 15 May and 15 August. other - monitoring
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers["Extraction "]As bycatch
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managers["Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers["", "Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making"]
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin Foundation["Extraction monitoring", "other"]Much ecological research, and some monitoring of sea cucumber catch (when fishery was open)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managers["Extraction monitoring ", "Extraction rule-making "]
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks ["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]Extraction sanctioning and monitoring - regulating uses of the Park which includes prosecuting for offenses under relevant State and Commonwealth laws. Extraction rule-making - Commercial fishing in the GABMP (CW) can be carried out under a permit issued by the Director or under a Commonwealth or State law. The Director may make determinations controlling fishing gear and fishing practices (but not responsible for setting or assigning quotas or monitoring SBT).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers["Extraction", "Consumption"]
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp Fishers["Extraction", "Extraction monitoring", "Trading"]Extraction Trading – selling shrimp to the broader markets Consumption – consuming some individually
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin Foundation["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "other"]CDF assisted with rule making, and were involved in monitoring of catch when the fishery was open. They are also involved in ecological surveys.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA["Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource Managers["Extraction", "Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making"]Extraction monitoring – making sure fishers comply with regulations Extraction - for scientific & research purposes. Extraction Rule Making – setting the regulations
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism[""]No direct use. Viewed by tourists.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Extraction", "Extraction monitoring"]Commercial fishers extract SBT but also provide information on how much tuna they caught and where.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Researchers["other"]Research, monitoring, long-term data trends No major direct use: Collections of voucher and other research specimens of shallow-water reef fishes, corals, other invertebrates, and algae in the NWHI has been periodic and of trivial magnitude. All such activity continues to be regulated by NWR Special Use Permits, which are issued only to qualified researchers by the USFWS, and State of Hawaii Scientific Collecting Permits.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managers["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction conflict resolution", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning", "Trading monitoring,", "Trading rule-making", "Trading sanctioning"]Regulate all aspects of extraction of target fish. Regulate and monitoring trade of some species.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermen[""]Extraction
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Managers[""]Extraction monitoring, Extraction rule-making, Extraction sanctioning
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers[""]Extraction, Extraction monitoring, Trading
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery Managers[""]Extraction monitoring, extraction rule-making
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid Trawlers[""]Extraction, Extraction monitoring
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Extraction monitoring", "Extraction rule-making", "Extraction sanctioning"]
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers["Extraction"]HIMI toothfish fishers might incidentally capture light-mantled albatross as part of the toothfish fishery; but it is not targeted and they actively avoid potential interactions.