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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionIn addition to this particular commons, does this actor group have access to other commons of the same type (e.g. if the commons in use is a forest, other forests) that would serve the same function?
Select Options1 Easily access other commons, 2 Can access other commons with some difficulty, 3 Cannot access other commons
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceActors that have access to many commons resources are likely to be more resilient (Adger 2000), but may be less likely to conserve any particular commons.
Definition

Alternative commons refers to other environmental commons of the same type that could fulfill the same function as an environmental commons for this actor group. For example, for farmers using water to irrigate their land, an alternative commons could be a groundwater resource.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
TranshumanceEasily access other commons
Roving banditryEasily access other commons
Gilded trapsCan access other alternatives with some difficulty

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersEasily access other commons (1)Other marine resources.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HEasily access other commons (1)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersCan access other commons with some difficulty (2)Many communities also farm, although their dependence on the sea versus land varies between communities based on their tradition and available land. They would find it diffuclt to access other coral-reef systems
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DEasily access other commons (1)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersEasily access other commons (1)Prior to discovery of substitutes, there were no alternatives. But over this snapshot there are many alternatives.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersCannot access other commons (3)Very few substitutes available during this snapshot
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersEasily access other commons (1)Fishermen can access other fisheries too. Often go to finfish after squid season. Can travel to other fisheries (e.g. mostly off of African coast).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenCannot access other commons (3)Other fishery species of the Galapagos are also in decline, and the archipelago is too remote to fish elsewhere. Most have changed livelihood instead.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp Fishers 
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismEasily access other commons (1)Polar bears are a charismatic species, but tourists can easily view other wildlife
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersCan access other commons with some difficulty (2)Many communities also farm, although their dependence on the sea versus land varies between communities based on their tradition and available land. They would find it diffuclt to access other coral-reef systems
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersEasily access other commons (1)Groups hold rights to harvest toothfish resources in other areas such as the Heard and Macdonald Islands and have the ability to access those resource given fishing technologies.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersCan access other commons with some difficulty (2)Turtles are not a major target species so there is not really a need to access them from other areas. The Bajau can and do access the pelagic fishery, dependent on season.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersEasily access other commons (1)Yes researchers could find other commons to study
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenCan access other commons with some difficulty (2)Other fisheries and locations are available to the groundfish fishermen, but there is difficulty in terms of acquiring the appropriate gear, permits, and if needed, relocating.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersCan access other commons with some difficulty (2)Other commons provide similar tourist attractions, e.g. dolphins, sea lions, but many people specifically come to watch the humpback whales.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersEasily access other commons (1)Can access other fishery stocks
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CEasily access other commons (1)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersEasily access other commons (1)Turtles are not a primary harvest species at this time
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorCannot access other commons (3)Only this population of green turtle are accessible from Galapagos. There are other species of turtle, but these species (Leatherback and Hawksbill) are rarer than Green
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersCan access other commons with some difficulty (2)Bajau were traditional sea nomads and do not live on land. They can and do access the pelagic fishery, dependent on season, but in terms of daily subsistence this is not a viable option.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersEasily access other commons (1)Both companies hold rights to harvest toothfish at the Heard and Macdonald Islands
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersEasily access other commons (1)Yes researchers could find other commons to study
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersEasily access other commons (1)Fishers in the HIMI fishery hold rights to harvest toothfish in other areas (e.g., Macquarie Island) and could also apply to harvest toothfish in the CCAMLR high seas region.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EEasily access other commons (1)
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FEasily access other commons (1)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismEasily access other commons (1)Yes multiple bird species and other wildlife present for viewing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersEasily access other commons (1)Many communities also farm, and are more dependent on an agarian livelihoods than marine. Dependence lower than in Raja Ampat.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GEasily access other commons (1)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersCannot access other commons (3)Bajau were traditional sea nomads and do not live on land - they are no longer nomadic so do not have access to any other coral reef systems
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersEasily access other commons (1)Many communities also farm, and are more dependent on an agarian livelihoods than marine. Dependence lower than in Raja Ampat.
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BEasily access other commons (1)
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenEasily access other commons (1)Easily access sardine and anchovy, some places mackerel as well.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersEasily access other commons (1)Yes, other fisheries (hoki, hake, warehou, lane). Is a multi-species fishery and managed as so.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersCan access other commons with some difficulty (2)Can and do travel to other states to fish recreationally but the travel is relatively extensive and expensive
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismCan access other commons with some difficulty (2)Main attraction is diving, liveaboards can move around between reefs. There are other tourist activities: trekking, bird watching and sightseeing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AEasily access other commons (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersCan access other commons with some difficulty (2)Can attempt to get licenses for other state fisheries but this involved substantial travel and cost. Cannot use their Queensland license elsewhere.