|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Question||What percentage of the area of this PA is covered by no take zones (IUCN Ia, Ib, and II)?|
|Importance||IUCN category is assigned based on the primary stated management objective of the PA, or a zone within an PA (the zone must be clearly mapped, recognised by legal or other effective means, and have distinct and unambiguous management aims that can be assigned to a particular protected area category). Zoning is an important component of PA management. Zones within an PA can be used to permit or restrict diverse uses in different areas of the PA (or network).|
Ia: Category Ia are strictly protected areas set aside to protect biodiversity and also possibly geological/
geomorphological features, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection of the conservation values. Such protected areas can serve as indispensable reference areas for scientific research and monitoring.
Ib: Category Ib protected areas are usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence, without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.
II: Category II protected areas are large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes, along with the complement of species and ecosystems characteristic of the area, which also provide a foundation for environmentally and culturally compatible spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities.
|Sectors||Marine protected areas|
|Critique of fortress conservation||100%|
|Ecological memory, Reserves and General Resilience||% area|
|Ecological effectiveness of MPAs||100%|
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999||4 %|
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current||33 %||http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/14122/area_statement_082010_updated_WebVersion.pdf|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||3.16 %||total of Core, Marine, and Tourism Zones within the MPA, which are the only areas of no-take. The whole MPA is considered IUCN II, but "extractive use (of living or dead material) is not considered consistent with the objectives of category II" - IUCN|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||100 %||The NWHI MPA is categorized as an IUCN Category Ib, where long-term ecological integrity is preserved with minimal modern infrastructure and zero resource extraction in order to allow future generations experience the area.|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||20 %||Total of 1982.32km2 no take (core and tourism zones) - percentage calculated from zoning given in Boli et al 2014. for the 5 MPAs presented in the paper (total 9905.76km2, not total area of the MPA network) Could not find zoning details on other MPAs|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||22 %||No-Take areas here are called "State Marine Reserves" and identified as: "An MPA designation that prohibits damage or take of all marine resources (living, geologic, or cultural) including recreational and commercial take." According to DFG maps, SMRs consist of about 10% of MBNMS (is 18% of all Central CA MPAs) and 12% of the north coast, totaling about 22% (CDFW 2013). Note that most of protected areas were limited harvest (e.g. MBNMS 0.204%) (Brown 2001).|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||0 %||Although these Nature Reserves are listed as a Ib on websites such as the WDPA, this may reflect a difference between terrestrial and marine landscapes. Commercial fishing is permitted within the nature reserves (although in practice it occurs in very small amounts), along with tourism. Based on the IUCN Guidelines for applying categories to MPAs, these reserves seem to be more in line with Category VI.|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||3.6 %||The percentage area breakdown by zone is as following: no-entry, 0.2%; no-take, 3.4%; artisanal fishing, 3.1%, special use, 0.1%; and general use, 93.2%. Only no-entry and no-take count in this case.|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||17 %||6% of the GMR is designated solely for conservation, whilst 11% is designated for tourism, in which extractive activities (fishing) are banned (Management plan)|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||35.8 %||35.8% of the marine reserve is a no-take area (IUCN Ia) out of a total area of 162000 square kilometers. The remainder is a habitat protection (IUCN IV)|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||0 %||The whole Park is IUCN Category VI 'managed resource protected area'|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||100 %||The entire MPA is a IUCN category 1a (strict nature reserve)|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||Not Applicable|
|Cenderwasih governance system||7.8 %||Core zone: 0.046km2 Marine protection zone: 1100km2 (no-take = 1100.046km2 (other areas are general use 9000km2 and 3875km2 - total adds up to >than park area, so percentages taken of this area total = 13975))|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.