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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeInterval
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
QuestionWhat percentage of the area of this PA is covered by no take zones (IUCN Ia, Ib, and II)?
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ImportanceIUCN category is assigned based on the primary stated management objective of the PA, or a zone within an PA (the zone must be clearly mapped, recognised by legal or other effective means, and have distinct and unambiguous management aims that can be assigned to a particular protected area category). Zoning is an important component of PA management. Zones within an PA can be used to permit or restrict diverse uses in different areas of the PA (or network).

Ia: Category Ia are strictly protected areas set aside to protect biodiversity and also possibly geological/

geomorphological features, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection of the conservation values. Such protected areas can serve as indispensable reference areas for scientific research and monitoring.

Ib: Category Ib protected areas are usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence, without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.

II: Category II protected areas are large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes, along with the complement of species and ecosystems characteristic of the area, which also provide a foundation for environmentally and culturally compatible spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities.

For further details and examples of how these categories are applied to MPAs, refer to IUCN Guidelines for Applying the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories to Marine Protected Areas for additional definitions: http://iucn.org/about/work/programmes/marine/marine_our_work/marine_mpas/mpa_publications.cfm?11131/Guidelines-for-Applying-the-IUCN-Protected-Area-Management-Categories-to-Marine-Protected-Areas

SectorsMarine protected areas

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Critique of fortress conservation100%
Ecological memory, Reserves and General Resilience% area
Centralized conservation100%
Ecological effectiveness of MPAs100%

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
GBR Marine Park Act 1975-19994 %
GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current33 %http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/14122/area_statement_082010_updated_WebVersion.pdf
Wakatobi National Park 2008-current3.16 %total of Core, Marine, and Tourism Zones within the MPA, which are the only areas of no-take. The whole MPA is considered IUCN II, but "extractive use (of living or dead material) is not considered consistent with the objectives of category II" - IUCN
NWHI Monument Act 2006100 %The NWHI MPA is categorized as an IUCN Category Ib, where long-term ecological integrity is preserved with minimal modern infrastructure and zero resource extraction in order to allow future generations experience the area.
Raja Ampat Governance System20 %Total of 1982.32km2 no take (core and tourism zones) - percentage calculated from zoning given in Boli et al 2014. for the 5 MPAs presented in the paper (total 9905.76km2, not total area of the MPA network) Could not find zoning details on other MPAs
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System 22 %No-Take areas here are called "State Marine Reserves" and identified as: "An MPA designation that prohibits damage or take of all marine resources (living, geologic, or cultural) including recreational and commercial take." According to DFG maps, SMRs consist of about 10% of MBNMS (is 18% of all Central CA MPAs) and 12% of the north coast, totaling about 22% (CDFW 2013). Note that most of protected areas were limited harvest (e.g. MBNMS 0.204%) (Brown 2001).
Svalbard Environmental Protection Act0 %Although these Nature Reserves are listed as a Ib on websites such as the WDPA, this may reflect a difference between terrestrial and marine landscapes. Commercial fishing is permitted within the nature reserves (although in practice it occurs in very small amounts), along with tourism. Based on the IUCN Guidelines for applying categories to MPAs, these reserves seem to be more in line with Category VI.
Seaflower MPA Act 20053.6 %The percentage area breakdown by zone is as following: no-entry, 0.2%; no-take, 3.4%; artisanal fishing, 3.1%, special use, 0.1%; and general use, 93.2%. Only no-entry and no-take count in this case.
Galapagos Governance System 1998-current17 %6% of the GMR is designated solely for conservation, whilst 11% is designated for tourism, in which extractive activities (fishing) are banned (Management plan)
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan35.8 %35.8% of the marine reserve is a no-take area (IUCN Ia) out of a total area of 162000 square kilometers. The remainder is a habitat protection (IUCN IV)
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 20120 %The whole Park is IUCN Category VI 'managed resource protected area'
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan100 %The entire MPA is a IUCN category 1a (strict nature reserve)
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanNot Applicable
Cenderwasih governance system7.8 %Core zone: 0.046km2 Marine protection zone: 1100km2 (no-take = 1100.046km2 (other areas are general use 9000km2 and 3875km2 - total adds up to >than park area, so percentages taken of this area total = 13975))