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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionCompliance: Do members of this actor group follow the rules of this governance system with respect to the emission or appropriation of this commons?
Select Options1 No, 2 Somewhat, 3 Yes
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceEmpirical studies have shown that compliance is an important factor that determines the overall status of a commons (Cinner et al. 2006, McKean 1986, Pollnac et al. 2010). However, the strength of compliance depends upon numerous factors, which vary depending on the particular context and structure of the governance arrangements (Eggert and Lokina 2010, Ostrom et al. 1994, Warner and Pomeroy 2012).
Definition

"The extent to which members of this actor group follow the formal rules of a governance system that regulate the emission or appropriation of a given commons. No: This actor group does not usually comply with formal rules. Somewhat: This actor group sometimes complies with rules, or complies with only a subset of the rules. Yes: This actor group almost always or always complies with formal rules."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
External recognition and local autonomyNo
EcolabelsYes
Payment for ecosystem services (PES)Yes
Centralized conservationYes
Pigouvian taxesYes
Numeric managementYes
Parametric managementYes
Ecological effectiveness of MPAsYes
Polycentric comanagementYes
CBNRM design principlesYes
Bans and perverse incentivesLow
EnforcementYes
Crowding out from external sanctioningNo
Critique of fortress conservationLow
Crowding in and participationHigh

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HYes (3)4/4:Respondents indicate that there is complete or near complete compliance with rules regarding the use of fish resources within the LMMA.
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DSomewhat (2)2.67/4: This value indicates that individuals from this community feel that on average most (2) to just a few individuals (3) violate rules.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYes (3)Blast fishing carried out by a few, but this is not the norm
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenSomewhat (2)At the start of the time period, fishermen did not follow the rules. At the end of the time period being coded, the fishery is collapsed and the number of fishermen greatly reduced, and they can be considered to be following the rules now - therefore coded as 'somewhat' (Shepherd et al., 2004; Wolff et al., 2011; Castrejon & Charles 2013)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersYes (3)Industrial producers comply with the national-level ODS regulations that exist.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYes (3)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYes (3)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYes (3)There are strict tourism regulations, and no evidene found of breaches
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersSomewhat (2)Yes, but there have been cases of conflict with Spanish fishers (fined for failing to keep catch logbooks for cod in 2006) and Russian trawlers - finde for dumping fish in the protection zone 2011 "Russia does not acknowledge Norwegian jurisdiction in the waters around Svalbard and believes that Russian vessels are not obliged to follow Norwegian law in the area unless the rules have been approved by the joint Norwegian, Russian fishery commission." http://barentsobserver.com/en/articles/no-conflict-svalbard-fisheries
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CYes (3)3.11/4: This value indicates that on average respondents feel that somewhere between just a few individuals (3) and no one (4) violates fisheries rules.
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AYes (3)3.75/4: This value indicates that on average members of the community feel that rules are broken by just a few individuals (3) or no one at all (4).
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BYes (3)3.5/4: This value indicates that on average members think that only a few individuals (3) or no one breaks rules with regards to the use of fish resources within the LMMA
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYes (3)There is no evidence of rule violations by members of this group. ishers are monitored by two independent onboard observers, as well as other VMS (vessel monitoring system), port monitoring, CDS (catch documentation scheme), CCAMLR reporting, and surveillance carried out by patrols (AFMA or Australian Defense Force - though they are more actively looking for IUU).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYes (3)Fishers are monitored and there is no evidence that fishers have breached regulations regarding southern right whales
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersSomewhat (2)Turtles are not a main target species and are difficult to sell, but unlikely that if one was caught as by-catch that it would be released
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersYes (3)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYes (3)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenSomewhat (2)Most fishermen adhere to the quotas, but sometimes quotas are unintentionally surpassed.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYes (3)Fishers are monitored
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorYes (3)Tourism in the Galapagos is generally considered to be well managed.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYes (3)There is no evidence that rules have been broken by toothfish fishers in relation to bycatch of light mantled albatross or the use of mitigation measures.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersSomewhat (2)There is confusion among fishers over where they can fish or not. Chui-Ling Tam pers comm: The only map of the zoning of the WNP is the one in the management plan, so understanding of the park zones among the Bajau is by word of mouth from those who have (briefly) seen this map.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FSomewhat (2)2.83/4: This value indicates that individuals from this community feel that on average most (2) to just a few individuals (3) violate rules.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersSomewhat (2)harvesting of coral is considered an insignificant activity (Clifton 2013)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYes (3)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYes (3)No evidence of non-compliance by tourism operators - appears well monitored.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EYes (3)3.04/4: This value indicates that on average members of the community feel that rules are broken by just a few individuals (3) or no one at all (4).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYes (3)Fishers are monitored by two independent onboard observers, as well as other VMS (vessel monitoring system), port monitoring, CDS (catch documentation scheme), CCAMLR reporting, and surveillance carried out by patrols (AFMA or Australian Defense Force - though they are more actively looking for IUU).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersYes (3)No evidence to suggest non-complicane with rules regarding corals
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GYes (3)4/4: This value indicates that there is complete compliance with rules according to respondents.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersSomewhat (2)Largely high compliance, some cases of false reports and breaches of licenses. But not often. Participation in the VMS programme is a condition of registration (for Falkland Islands vessels) or licensing (for foreign vessels). Sometimes high reports of by catch are really illegal fishing with the net that is only allowed in Loligo box.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers 
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenYes (3)Compliance is generally not a problem. Heavy fines and enforcement ensure this.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersYes (3)Generally yes. High social pressure. Some cases of misconduct on a range of issues.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersYes (3)Assume that recreational fishers do comply with zoning boundaries, which are enforced, and with bag limits for which data on compliance is not available. There is some evidence in the GBRMP that no-go zones have recovered better than no-take zones suggesting some poaching in no-take zones. However, compared to other systems the GBRMP has relatively effective enforcement and compliance mechanisms.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersYes (3)There is some evidence that no-go areas are better protected than no-take areas suggesting some degree of poaching in no-take areas. However, relative to other systems compliance is relatively high.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYes (3)Fishers are well monitored and there is no evidence that fishers have breached regulations
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismYes (3)Tourism is well-regulated
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersYes (3)Mostly comply with zoning boundaries and do not directly poach/use this resource in any case.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYes (3)Toothfish fishers only comprise two companies and four vessels in the HIMI region (during this snapshot) and there is no evidence that they are not following and complying with the seabird bycatch mitigation rules.