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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionAre there clear rules that are followed about who and who isn't a member of this group?
Select OptionsNo boundaries, Unclear boundaries, Clear boundaries
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceAs Ostrom (1990) states: "So long as the boundaries of the resource and/or the specification of individuals who can use the resource remain uncertain, no one knows what is being managed or for whom. Without defining the boundaries of the CPR and closing it to "outsiders," local appropriators face the risk that any benefits they produce by their efforts will be reaped by others who have not contributed to those efforts."
Definition

No boundaries indicate an entire lack of common understanding regarding group membership.

Unclear boundaries indicate that some of the members of this group are aware of who is and who isn't a member, and there is some enforcement of any rules associated with membership.

Clear boundaries indicate that the great majority of the members of this group are aware of who is and who isn't a member, and there is strong enforcement of any rules associated with membership."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
CBNRM design principlesClear boundaries
User group boundariesClear boundaries

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersClear boundariesBased on ethnic origin.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HClear boundaries
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersClear boundariesBased on ethnicity
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DClear boundaries
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersClear boundaries
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersClear boundariesAlthough there are many small producers, this group is dominated by major producers such as DuPont with clear boundaries.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersClear boundariesBased on ethnicity
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersClear boundariesStates that are permitted to fish for shrimp in the Svalbard zone are Canada, the EU, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Russia and Norway. Each state has a certain number of fishing days per month.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismClear boundariesPermission must be sought from the Govenor. Although the boundary is open for any operator to initiate cruises to Svalbard, in practice almost all boats/operators are members of AECO.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenClear boundariesOnly those with permits and residents of the Galapagos islands are permitted to fish within the GMR.
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BClear boundaries
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CClear boundaries
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AClear boundaries
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersClear boundariesBased on ethnic origin
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenUnclear boundariesWith the limited entry groundfish fishery, it is clear who has a permit and who does not. However, with the open access fishery, it is less clear who partakes in this fishery. Also, it is confidential information which fishermen target exactly which fish, though friendly participants generally know this. The quota shares groups are more clear who is in which group.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersUnclear boundariesThere is no membership for academic researchers. SiMON provides a framework to say who is part of the research community associated with the Sanctuary, but others can be excluded from this database but still academic researchers here.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersClear boundariesOwnership of quota defines group membership.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersNo boundariesThere is no group membership and anyone can be considered a recreational user.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorClear boundariesTourism is regulated through permits and licensing
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersClear boundariesPermits and ownership of quota to SBT stocks defines membership.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersClear boundariesOwnership of quota to Macquarie Island toothfish stocks defines membership.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersClear boundariesOwnership of quota to SBT stocks defines membership.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersClear boundariesBased on traditional rights
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FClear boundaries
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersClear boundariesClear who is ethnically Bajau.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersClear boundariesClear who is ethnically Bajau.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismClear boundariesPermission must be sought from the Govenor. Although the boundary is open for any operator to initiate cruises to Svalbard, in practice almost all boats/operators are members of AECO.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersUnclear boundariesThere is no membership for academic researchers. SiMON provides a framework to say who is part of the research community associated with the Sanctuary, but others can be excluded from this database but still academic researchers here.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EClear boundaries
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersClear boundariesOwnership of quota defines group membership.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersClear boundaries
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersClear boundaries
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GClear boundaries
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersClear boundariesclear who is ethnically Bajau
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenClear boundariesLicenses are clear. Crew are less clear.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersClear boundariesITQ and licenses are very clear .
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersClear boundariesQMS very strict rules for who has how much quota. Quota must be owned by New Zealand company. Vessels must be New Zealand flagged.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersClear boundariesRules are clear - anyone can be a recreational fisher
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismClear boundariesSince 2007 all visitors traveling in Raja Ampat have to pay an entrance fee. The entrance fee for 2015 foreign visitors is Rp 1.000.000/person/calendar year (approximately US$100) for which they will receive a waterproof plastic entrance tag featuring a photo from Raja Ampat.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersClear boundariesOwnership of quota to SBT stocks defines membership.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersClear boundaries
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersClear boundariesHIMI toothfish fishers all have quotas to fish, clearly defining membership/actor group boundaries.