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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow quickly does this actor group experience the effects of its own use of this environmenal commons?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceFeedbacks between the ecological and social sub-systems inform ecological knowledge systems and adaptation responses (Gunderson and Holling, 2002). The capacity of actors to respond appropriately to commons decline is therefore expected to be affected by the rapidity of feedbacks. This question relates to the vulnerability of the commons to degradatation from use. A highly vulnerable system will be more heavily impacted by use and degradation will be felt more quickly, unless there is some interaction with ActorCommonsFeedbackVisibilityUse which means that impacts are delayed or camoflaged. Roving bandits quickly deplete resources in one region, and move on to another when they begin to feel the effects of their resource use (Berkes et al. 2006)
Definition

"This variables describes how quickly this actor group feels the effects of its own use of the commons. High: This actor group gets immediate or nearly immediate feedback about the effects of its own use. If fishers fish out a lake in a big fishing event in one day, they would not be able to catch any fish the next day. Low: This actor group gets very delayed feedback about the effects of its own use of the commons. The effect of pollution on human health can take years or decades to be felt by the actors emitting the pollutants."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Feedbacks and general resilienceMedium or High
Conditions for general resilienceMedium or High
Technical solutions and shifting the burdenLow

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaMedium (2)Although localized effects of use are fairly immediate, this actor group was fairly mobile, able to move on to other stocks of forests quickly, and thus, although some mild effects would be felt from resource overuse, these were ameliorated by mobility.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesHigh (3)Changes in the forest are immediately apparent to local forest users.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers Researchers do not use the commons.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998) This actor does not "use" the commons - it makes rules about it.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursMedium (2)We do not have direct evidence, so this is speculative?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesHigh (3)this actor group lives directly in the forest and can easily experience effects of its own use.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012) 
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAMissingNO DATA
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia I don't think this group uses.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District Governments ?
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersMedium (2)Individuals may observe quick effects if whale behavior changes, but the broader tourism industry's influence on whale observing may be a longer period
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Medium (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Medium (2)Due to the size of the resource stock, it appears that increased harvests has a delayed reaction on resource stocks.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia I'm not sure how to answer this question - does it refer to the experience of extractive industries running out of resources in a region? as far as I can tell, this has not yet appeared as a major problem. But then does that mean it doesn't experience, or that it experiences, but it doesn't care?
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersMedium (2)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersLow (1)The environmental effects of ozone depleting substances are experienced slowly as the chlorine in ODS interacts with ozone in the atmosphere.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone SecretariatLow (1)With a reliable monitoring regime, the Ozone Secretariat is able to rapidly detect changes in the emissions of ODS. .
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersMedium (2)
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsLow (1)This actor group does not experience the detrimental effects from water pollution as it does not use generally speaking the Rhine's water (quality) for its production process. That said, the effects are moderated by climatic events (rainfall) and sedimentation processes
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersHigh (3)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, happens quickly.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Low (1)The effects of ODS emissions are experienced slowly as concentrations of ozone depleting substances increase in the atmosphere.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers Not applicable because the managers don't use the resource.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersHigh (3)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, happens quickly.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties High (3)Due to the relatively small size of the stock and modern fishing technologies, use by ICCAT member states can and has led to rapid effects on Western stocks.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersHigh (3)Given the small size of the Western stock and modern fishing technologies, stock depletion can and has occurred rapidly.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenHigh (3)Sea cucumbers are easy to see, don't travel far and are fairly easy to fish out (hence the fishery becoming depleted during this time period) - coded as High because they are fished out quicker than turtles, which have been coded medium. (Hearn et al., 2005)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHigh (3)Stocks can be depleted within years.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersHigh (3)Can be overfished in one season, fishing closed within season.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Low (1)Effects of regulation occur over a very long time frame
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersHigh (3)Industrial producers rapidly experience the economic effects of reductions in ozone depleting substances, although these are somewhat offset by economic payoffs from substitutes. The environmental effects on ozone occur over a much longer period of time.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Not Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA Managers do not use this habitat.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Not Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMedium (2)Over-fishing of long-lived species such as grouper and snapper can lead to dramatic declines in populations, but effects are not immediately seen. In addition Bajau conceive time as consisting of a series of unrelated events, without reference to backward or forward causal linkages, e.g. future catches will be determined by future effort, not any present-day activity (Clifton and Majors 2012)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersHigh (3)Damage to corals occurs quickly - large areas can easily be damaged by blast fishing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMedium (2)Over-fishing of long-lived species such as turtles can lead to dramatic declines in populations, but effects are not immediately seen. In addition Bajau conceive time as consisting of a series of unrelated events, without reference to backward or forward causal linkages, e.g. future catches will be determined by future effort, not any present-day activity (Clifton and Majors 2012)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Not Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAANot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Not Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)Damage to corals occurs quickly - large areas can easily be damaged by blast fishing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Researchers do not use the habitat, except for occasional research projects, but permits are allocated for such uses.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersMedium (2)Over-fishing of long-lived species such as turtles can lead to dramatic declines in populations, but effects are not immediately seen.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersMissing
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINANot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersMedium (2)Over-fishing can be detected but impacts are not immediately obvious
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Not Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenHigh (3)Trawling (largely banned now) dramatically decreased habitat and thus stock numbers. These species are slow growing and take years to become mature, so stocks can be replenished quickly.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionMissing
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersHigh (3)Stocks can be depleted within years.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)Turtles are a long-lived species which take many years to reach sexual maturity, so the effects of bycatch may take years to observe.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersMedium (2)Overharvesting of shrimp could easily happen, but would likely take a while to see the effects (a few months to a year).
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI ResearchersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHigh (3)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, happens quickly.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersMedium (2)Over-fishing can be detected but impacts are not immediately obvious
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)It is a migratory species with spawning grounds in NW Australia/Java and although there have been rapid declines and commercial fishers experience these declines, they may not attribute them to their own actions (e.g. fishing by Japan or other nations)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Not Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersNot Applicable
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenHigh (3)Effects are felt current or next year.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersLow (1)Have not yet seen evidence of use effect.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery ManagersNot Applicable
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Managers Managers do not use commons
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing