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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeEnvironmental Common
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeExternal (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionHas the governance of this commons led to the leakage of costs or benefits onto other systems? In terms of costs, has the governance of this commons increased extraction or pollution pressures on other similar resources?
Select OptionsYes, leakage of benefits, Yes, leakage of costs, No leakage
Unit
Role
ImportanceThis variable captures the extent to which leakage occurs, which particularly important to understand because if protection of one resource leads to degradation of another resource, the overall sustainability of a system may be compromised. A system that seems to be effective may in fact not be if the benefits achieved within its jurisdiction or compromised elsewhere. Conversely, if a governance system produced external benefits, this may undermine the motivations of key actors in the system to adequately manage this commons if they feel that others are free-riding on their efforts.
Definition

Frequently restrictions on the use of a particular commons lead to increased exploitation or degradation of other resources as a substitute. Or conversely, it may be that the governance system produced benefits for other commons. When this occurs it is known as "leakage", particularly within the literature on the payment for ecoystem services instrument known as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) This variable provides a quick summary of the relationship between the governance of this commons and impacts on other commons. For example, if restrictions on harvesting a certain population or species of fish lead to increased exploitation of another fish population, then this should be recorded here.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Decentralization and leakageYes, leakage of costs
Critique of fortress conservationYes leakage of costs

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in Indonesia0
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in Indonesia0
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna 0
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Fish ResourcesMissing
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna0
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Fish ResourcesMissing
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzone Depleting SubstancesNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna["No leakage"]
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Fish ResourcesMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health["Yes, leakage of benefits"]Increased tourism to coastal walkways.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substances1Some ODS substitutes such as HCFC's are Greenhouse gases.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine Point source pollutants 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fish0
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral cover["Yes, leakage of benefits"]The no-take areas, many of which were designed to protect coral reefs, have been shown to have some fisheries spill-over benefits.
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzone Depleting SubstancesNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral cover0
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea Cucumber["Yes, leakage of benefits"]No leakage within GMR onto other fish species. Tourism has increased - less extractive, could be seen as a benefit. And Reports of benefits to industrial Tuna fishery (Alex Hearn pers comm - paper forthcoming).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral cover["No leakage"]No-take areas are very small so no real pressure to move elsewhere. However, Bajau are very mobile and could easily move to other areas.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawning["No leakage"]No evidence yet that the Resource Users move to other spawning aggregations to fish as a result of governance of spawning aggregations in Wakatobi even though the no-take areas protect aggregations in Wakatobi Bajau may be moving more into pelagic system (Chui-Ling Tam pers comm).
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substances["Yes, leakage of benefits"]The ban of some ODS might have contributed to small (effectively insignificant) declines in the emissions of greenhouse gases.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish ["No leakage"]
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled Albatross["No leakage"]
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal Penguin["No leakage"]
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster Fishery["No leakage"]Lobster fishermen were compensated at the closure of the fishery: "NOAA Fisheries Service compensated all of the fishermen who were authorized to fish for lobster or bottomfish in the NWHI when the Monument was created in 2006. The compensation was based on the economic value of their fishing permits." NOAA press release
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)BiophysicalRhine Non-point source pollutants[]
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green Turtle["No leakage"]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green Turtle["No leakage"]Almost all turtle populations in the area are now protected, so no evidence of leakage. Pigs have been introduced to some islands as a replacement for turtle meat.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback Whale["Yes, leakage of benefits"]Possibly leakage of benefits in terms of monitoring more and decreasing ship strikes for other species, but undocumented at this time.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic Density["No leakage"]There was no major use in the area before the designation of the Monument
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion["Yes, leakage of benefits"]Stricter fishing controls have been introduced - between 2010 and 2012, the management measures introduced include spatial closures (most between 4–10 nm) excluding the fishery around all Sea Lion colonies off South Australia, and bycatch trigger limits that place a cap on the total numbers of Sea Lions that are permitted to be caught within areas of the fishery, which if exceeded result in extended (18 month) fishery closures (AFMA 2012).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green Turtle["No leakage"]The Bajau are mobile, but no evidence that they move to harvest turtle eggs at other nesting beaches as a result of no take zones.
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Fish ResourcesMissing
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Fish ResourcesMissing
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Fish ResourcesMissing
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Fish ResourcesMissing
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Fish Resources[]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral Cover["No leakage"]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish ["No leakage"]No evidence of leakage
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar Bear["No leakage"]
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish Habitat["Yes, leakage of costs"]Anecdotal evidence points to fishermen targeting Alaskan stocks since the quotas decreased. Also, fishermen have moved to targeting salmon, albacore, and crab. Whether or not those species are negatively affected by that increased pressure from groundfish fishermen, remains unknown.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green Turtle["No leakage"]Turtles have been protected since the 1970s
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp["No leakage"]
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled Albatross["No leakage"]
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale["No leakage"]There is the possibility of the leakage of benefits to other cetaceans and marine animals that use the Marine Mammal Protection Zone of the GABMP (CW). This zone is closed to vessel traffic May 1 - October 31, which would prevent fisheries from taking place in this area along with the human interaction/disturbance with other marine animals, although there is no empirical evidence of this.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fish["No leakage"]Leakage through spillover from no-take zones is a benefit to fisheries as well as to recovery and resilience of other no-take zones so does not undermine collective action.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sharks["No leakage"]No leakage associated with sharks themselves as it is illegal to fish them anyway- but now industrial fishing is concentrated at the boundaries of the GMR.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna["No leakage"]Governance of this commons in the GABMP (CW) has not changed the level of pressure this environmental commons experiences.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing Penguin["No leakage"]
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral cover["No leakage"]no evidence
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Kittiwake[""]Svalbard is considered to be the most accessible region in the Arctic, and remains that way.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefs["No leakage"]
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)["", "Yes, leakage of benefits"]Yes - both. Vessels that used to fish have gone elsewhere. License fees often pay for 50% national budget (roads, schools, etc). Seabirds affected by fishery, but management has improved. The resident population is c. 3000 people with annual gross domestic product (GDP) averaging £70 million over the last 15 years (Harte & Barton, 2007). The fisheries sector constitutes up to 45–50% of GDP, mainly from the sale of fishing licences and an annual charge on fishing rights (in the form of individual transferable quotas; ITQ) and taxation of fishing companies (Harte & Barton, 2007) (Arkhipkin et al. 2013). Harte and Barton 2007a: Real growth in GDP has stalled because of the slow growth of the fisheries sector. There are substantial leakages in the form of wages to overseas crew and transfer of profits by overseas-based companies.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green Turtle[""]
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)[""]Extraction likely would have been same. Yes, Benefits to sea lion and sea bird population. Privatization of fisheries with QMS helped government to not go broke Yes, benefit to conservation research. Management of sea lions (monitoring especially and other science projects) is funded by active fishery participation. Without fishery, cannot legally be funded by fishery. Only funded by industry if possible interference of fishery.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fish["No leakage"]No evidence of leakage
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)[""]Yes, benefits - flexible government allows to access other fisheries that are less economically fruitful.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish ["No leakage"]
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupers["Yes, leakage of benefits"]In a sense a number of different resources benefited from the creation of the MPA - there is no regulation that specifically manages the use of groupers.