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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindComponent
ThemeLeadership (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionHow much authority does the leader of this group hold?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
ImportanceThe willingness of someone to assume the costs of collective enterprises does not necessarily mean that such enterprises will be fully accomplished. Different variables can mediate that process, including leadership traits like authority. Some of the variables used in the field of natural resource management as a proxy for authority are formal positions, education, age or economic resources (Baland and Plateau 1996, Meinzen-Dick et al. 2002)

"This variable address whether a leader has the ability to have an influence over the behavior of other members in a group. Authority can be broadly seen as similar to power, which is understood as the ability of someone to carry out her or his will despite resistance (Weber 1964). Sources of authority (i.e. power) are diverse, including from formal positions in organizations, to different forms of expertise and resources (Raven 1993). High: the leader has a lot of power over the actors, and can effectively influence their actions. Low: the leader has little or no power over the actors, and does not or barely influences their actions."


Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Accountable leadershipHigh
Conditions for general resilienceModerate or High

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
Galapagos Artisan FishermenHigh (3)One President (elected from the four) is responsible for representing the Galapagos fishing sector at meetings of the Participatory Management Board at which management decisions regarding the Galapagos Marine Reserve are made.
"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)High (3)Suharto was a dictator with a great deal of authority over others working in the government, and over the nation as a whole.
Indonesian "Adat" Communities Missing in case?
Indonesian District Governments Does this refer to inter or intra group? Individual district leaders have medium levels of authority within their districts. They have no between district authority.
"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)High (3)The President of Indonesia is very powerful, although not as powerful as under Suharto's "new order" regime. His power is now mitigated by the judicial and a legislative branches. See Fukuoka 2013, 2013b for details.
Civil society organizations in Indonesia ?
ICCAT Contracting Parties  
ICCAT Western Members 
ICCAT Eastern Members N/A
Ozone Nation States  Not applicable
Wetfish Fishermen 
Australian Toothfish FishersMissing
Wakatobi Bajau fishersMedium (2)Chiefs are well respected and have authority within the governance structure. Not coded as high, as if the chief is non-Bajau then although still respected they will leave each others communities to their own.
NWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)The leaders of these organisations can make important decisions about organisational and operational issues related to the structure of the agency, staff and the activities that are prioritised and undertaken.
Wakatobi managersMedium (2)Central government sets budget, but are based in Jakarta, day-to-day running is managed by district government with support from NGOs
Australian Antarctic DivisionHigh (3)The Director of the AAD is responsible for overseeing management of Australia's entire Antarctic region, including the subantarctic territory at Heard and McDonald Islands and Macquarie Island.
GMR managersHigh (3)All decisions made in regards to use of the GMR are made by the PMB and IMA. Decisions made by the PMB are usually ratified by the IMA, however IMA holds considerable power to overturn any decision made by the PMB, or to make a decision when consensus is not reached.
Riparian Nations (1976-1986) 
Charles Darwin FoundationMedium (2)The Board of Directors is comprised of eight members of the General Assembly who are elected for six-year terms. They work with the Executive Director and make decisions on behalf of the General Assembly.
Galapagos Tourism SectorMedium (2)Assume governement agency with fairly high authority, although tourism regulations set with Parks Service and CDF, so coded as medium
Raja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)Decisions concerning which marine resources are open for fishing and which are closed are determined by the leaders. They control the use and access to marine resources.
NWHI ResearchersNot Applicable
California Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Principal investigators are restricted by their funding demands and by Sanctuary rules (e.g. permits required) but otherwise have full authority over their respective projects.
California Sanctuary Recreational UsersLow (1)Authority is given by access and ownership of equipment, however any user does not have to abide by any one leader.
California Groundfish FishermenLow (1)Mostly self-involved and longest-participating individuals are leaders and are followed not by any authoritative formal means, but by relationships.
California State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesHigh (3)The Council typically has higher authority, but authority is strong and high. All decisions of any Council shall be by majority vote of the voting members present and voting. The chair has only one vote, as does every other on the council. However, many times the chair can informally impose a stronger pull towards their decision.
Community DMissing
Raja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)
Macquarie Island ManagersLow (1)Leaders hold high levels of authority within the Nature Reserve and MPA; but do not hold authority outside of those areas.
Svalbard Resource ManagersHigh (3)The Governor of Svalbard is ultimately in charge of monitoring and compliance of environmental regulations. As the chief of police on Svalbard, the Governor also has the authority to prosecute environmental violations.
Svalbard TourismMedium (2)The Executive Director appears to have authority on day-to-day matters and considerable personal influence during meetings with stakeholders such as local communities, government agencies, shipping companies, etc. However, the big decisions (such as the Organizational Guidelines) are subject to vote by the AECO membership.
CORALINAHigh (3)In theory, the leader has considerable authority over his/her personnel, management operations, administrative activities.
Seaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Community GMissing
Community EMissing
Community HMissing
Svalbard Shrimp FishersNot Applicable
Galapagos Charles Darwin FoundationMedium (2)The Board of Directors is comprised of eight members of the General Assembly who are elected for six-year terms. They work with the Executive Director and make decisions on behalf of the General Assembly.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Medium (2)The EPBC Act requires the Director to perform functions and exercise powers in accordance with any directions given by the Minister of the Environment, unless the Act provides otherwise. The Minister of the Environment is responsible for the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies (CAC) Act 1997 and may, via a General Policy Order, also notify the Director under the CAC Act of general government policies that apply to the Director. The Director has authority to make organizational and operational decisions under the legal structure of the EPBC Act.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)The CFA is recognized by AFMA (Australian Government agency responsible for the efficient management and sustainable use of Commonwealth fish resources) as the peak body representing the the collective rights, responsibilities and interests of a diverse commercial fishing industry in Commonwealth-regulated fisheries (Commonwealth Wild Capture Fisheries and Commonwealth fishing industry). CFA participates in decision-making processes but no formal co-management arrangement between state and industry exists which limits the commercial fishers' authority, although, there is increased interest in developing a Co-Management Program for Australian Commonwealth fisheries (Mazur 2010).
Cenderwasih fishersMedium (2)Leaders are generally well respected but the youth do not always agree with formal leadership (socio-economic basline survey 2008)
Cenderwasih managersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersHigh (3)While scientific advise is given to the director and the committee which is made up of government and industry representatives, it is ultimately approved by the Executive Council.
Patagonian Squid TrawlersHigh (3)Very hierarchical, where joint venture businessmen have a lot of control over fishing masters which have a lot of control over fishermen.
California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersHigh (3)Senior scientists have a lot of say in management decisions. Many reports are team created, but often decisions are shaped by leaders.
Association of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in BrazilLow (1)
SCUBA diving businesses on Gili TrawanganHigh (3)
Gili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)Medium (2)
Gili EcoTrust on Gili TrawanganHigh (3)
Misool Eco Resort 
Large Extractive Industries in Indonesia not applicable (no leader)
Indonesian Local entrepreneurs Not applicable.
Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersLow (1)Not applicable.
Ozone SecretariatHigh (3)The Secretariat has the power to monitor implementation of the Protocol, although sanctions are rarely if ever used.
ICPR nations (1976-1986)Low (1)Sovereignty of the countries clashed with the intention of The Neetherlands to push for a stricter Chemicals Convention and its implementation.
ICPR nations (1986-2000)Medium (2)See "ICPR Nations (1987-1986)"
Rhine chemical firms 
Rhine agricultural sector 
GBR government co-managersHigh (3)The leaders of these organisations can make important decisions about organisational and operational issues related to the structure of the agency, staff and the activities that are prioritised and undertaken.
GBR recreational fishersMedium (2)The recreational fishers associations have low representation but are nonetheless recognised by the government and invited to participate in some decision-making over management of the recreational fishery and GBRMP.
GBR fisheries managersHigh (3)Has power to make organisational and operational decisions
GBR commercial fishersMedium (2)The QSIA is formally recognised by government as the industry peak body and is included in policy consultations, thereby participating in arenas of decision-making. However no formal co-management arrangement between state and industry exists thereby limits fishers' leadership authority.
National Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAHigh (3)The leader has full authority and can adjust program directives, if it follows under the national and legal structure, as the leader sees fit.
Raja Ampat TourismMedium (2)Tourism department of Raja Ampat government - developed formal tourism regulations, but approved by higher governement levels
Community CMissing
Community AMissing
Community BMissing
Australian Fisheries Management AuthorityHigh (3)AFMA is the AU government's statutory agency responsible for fisheries management.
Community FMissing
New Zealand Fishery ManagersHigh (3)Manager guides team, and is the one who discuss with the Minister.
New Zealand Arrow Squid FishersHigh (3)Board has authority to make decisions for rest of fishery. DWG can change internal rules on its own. Not legally binding, but within the industry considered necessary.
California market squid fishermenLow (1)Serve as spokesperson. Can pull weight in management decisions, but not up to them.
Indonesian Institute of Sciences - LIPIMissing
Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio)Missing
Brazilian Institute of the Environment & Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA)Missing
Isla Caballo AMPR Costa RicaLow (1)
Paquera-Tambor AMPR Costa RicaHigh (3)
Secretary of State for the Environment of ParĂ¡ (SEMA) in BrazilMissing
Lombok aquaculture farmersLow (1)
Palito-Montero AMPR Costa RicaLow (1)