|Variable Component Type||Actor|
|Theme||Leadership (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||How much authority does the leader of this group hold?|
|Select Options||1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High|
|Importance||The willingness of someone to assume the costs of collective enterprises does not necessarily mean that such enterprises will be fully accomplished. Different variables can mediate that process, including leadership traits like authority. Some of the variables used in the field of natural resource management as a proxy for authority are formal positions, education, age or economic resources (Baland and Plateau 1996, Meinzen-Dick et al. 2002)|
"This variable address whether a leader has the ability to have an influence over the behavior of other members in a group. Authority can be broadly seen as similar to power, which is understood as the ability of someone to carry out her or his will despite resistance (Weber 1964). Sources of authority (i.e. power) are diverse, including from formal positions in organizations, to different forms of expertise and resources (Raven 1993). High: the leader has a lot of power over the actors, and can effectively influence their actions. Low: the leader has little or no power over the actors, and does not or barely influences their actions."
|Conditions for general resilience||Moderate or High|
|Indonesian "Adat" Communities||Missing in case?|
|"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)||High (3)||The President of Indonesia is very powerful, although not as powerful as under Suharto's "new order" regime. His power is now mitigated by the judicial and a legislative branches. See Fukuoka 2013, 2013b for details.|
|"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)||High (3)||Suharto was a dictator with a great deal of authority over others working in the government, and over the nation as a whole.|
|Large Extractive Industries in Indonesia||not applicable (no leader)|
|Indonesian Local entrepreneurs||Not applicable.|
|Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers||Low (1)||Not applicable.|
|ICPR nations (1976-1986)||Low (1)||Sovereignty of the countries clashed with the intention of The Neetherlands to push for a stricter Chemicals Convention and its implementation.|
|Galapagos Artisan Fishermen||High (3)||One President (elected from the four) is responsible for representing the Galapagos fishing sector at meetings of the Participatory Management Board at which management decisions regarding the Galapagos Marine Reserve are made.|
|Civil society organizations in Indonesia||?|
|ICCAT Contracting Parties|
|ICCAT Western Members|
|ICCAT Eastern Members||N/A|
|Ozone Nation States||Not applicable|
|GBR fisheries managers||High (3)||Has power to make organisational and operational decisions|
|Ozone Secretariat||High (3)||The Secretariat has the power to monitor implementation of the Protocol, although sanctions are rarely if ever used.|
|ICPR nations (1986-2000)||Medium (2)||See "ICPR Nations (1987-1986)"|
|Rhine chemical firms|
|Rhine agricultural sector|
|Indonesian District Governments||Does this refer to inter or intra group? Individual district leaders have medium levels of authority within their districts. They have no between district authority.|
|National Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA||High (3)||The leader has full authority and can adjust program directives, if it follows under the national and legal structure, as the leader sees fit.|
|Raja Ampat Tourism||Medium (2)||Tourism department of Raja Ampat government - developed formal tourism regulations, but approved by higher governement levels|
|Raja Ampat Managers||High (3)|
|Australian Toothfish Fishers||Missing|
|NWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship||High (3)||The leaders of these organisations can make important decisions about organisational and operational issues related to the structure of the agency, staff and the activities that are prioritised and undertaken.|
|Riparian Nations (1976-1986)|
|Wakatobi managers||Medium (2)||Central government sets budget, but are based in Jakarta, day-to-day running is managed by district government with support from NGOs|
|Wakatobi Bajau fishers||Medium (2)||Chiefs are well respected and have authority within the governance structure. Not coded as high, as if the chief is non-Bajau then although still respected they will leave each others communities to their own.|
|GMR managers||High (3)||All decisions made in regards to use of the GMR are made by the PMB and IMA. Decisions made by the PMB are usually ratified by the IMA, however IMA holds considerable power to overturn any decision made by the PMB, or to make a decision when consensus is not reached.|
|NWHI Researchers||Not Applicable|
|CORALINA||High (3)||In theory, the leader has considerable authority over his/her personnel, management operations, administrative activities.|
|Macquarie Island Managers||Low (1)||Leaders hold high levels of authority within the Nature Reserve and MPA; but do not hold authority outside of those areas.|
|Raja Ampat Artisanal Fishers||High (3)||Decisions concerning which marine resources are open for fishing and which are closed are determined by the leaders. They control the use and access to marine resources.|
|Charles Darwin Foundation||Medium (2)||The Board of Directors is comprised of eight members of the General Assembly who are elected for six-year terms. They work with the Executive Director and make decisions on behalf of the General Assembly.|
|Galapagos Tourism Sector||Medium (2)||Assume governement agency with fairly high authority, although tourism regulations set with Parks Service and CDF, so coded as medium|
|Seaflower artisanal fishers||Missing||NO DATA|
|GBR commercial fishers||Medium (2)||The QSIA is formally recognised by government as the industry peak body and is included in policy consultations, thereby participating in arenas of decision-making. However no formal co-management arrangement between state and industry exists thereby limits fishers' leadership authority.|
|California Sanctuary Recreational Users||Low (1)||Authority is given by access and ownership of equipment, however any user does not have to abide by any one leader.|
|GBR recreational fishers||Medium (2)||The recreational fishers associations have low representation but are nonetheless recognised by the government and invited to participate in some decision-making over management of the recreational fishery and GBRMP.|
|California State and Federal Fisheries Agencies||High (3)||The Council typically has higher authority, but authority is strong and high. All decisions of any Council shall be by majority vote of the voting members present and voting. The chair has only one vote, as does every other on the council. However, many times the chair can informally impose a stronger pull towards their decision.|
|California Academic Researchers||High (3)||Principal investigators are restricted by their funding demands and by Sanctuary rules (e.g. permits required) but otherwise have full authority over their respective projects.|
|Australian Fisheries Management Authority||High (3)||AFMA is the AU government's statutory agency responsible for fisheries management.|
|Svalbard Tourism||Medium (2)||The Executive Director appears to have authority on day-to-day matters and considerable personal influence during meetings with stakeholders such as local communities, government agencies, shipping companies, etc. However, the big decisions (such as the Organizational Guidelines) are subject to vote by the AECO membership.|
|Svalbard Resource Managers||High (3)||The Governor of Svalbard is ultimately in charge of monitoring and compliance of environmental regulations. As the chief of police on Svalbard, the Governor also has the authority to prosecute environmental violations.|
|GBR government co-managers||High (3)||The leaders of these organisations can make important decisions about organisational and operational issues related to the structure of the agency, staff and the activities that are prioritised and undertaken.|
|Svalbard Shrimp Fishers||Not Applicable|
|Galapagos Charles Darwin Foundation||Medium (2)||The Board of Directors is comprised of eight members of the General Assembly who are elected for six-year terms. They work with the Executive Director and make decisions on behalf of the General Assembly.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks||Medium (2)||The EPBC Act requires the Director to perform functions and exercise powers in accordance with any directions given by the Minister of the Environment, unless the Act provides otherwise. The Minister of the Environment is responsible for the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies (CAC) Act 1997 and may, via a General Policy Order, also notify the Director under the CAC Act of general government policies that apply to the Director. The Director has authority to make organizational and operational decisions under the legal structure of the EPBC Act.|
|Cenderwasih managers||Not Applicable|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers||Medium (2)||The CFA is recognized by AFMA (Australian Government agency responsible for the efficient management and sustainable use of Commonwealth fish resources) as the peak body representing the the collective rights, responsibilities and interests of a diverse commercial fishing industry in Commonwealth-regulated fisheries (Commonwealth Wild Capture Fisheries and Commonwealth fishing industry). CFA participates in decision-making processes but no formal co-management arrangement between state and industry exists which limits the commercial fishers' authority, although, there is increased interest in developing a Co-Management Program for Australian Commonwealth fisheries (Mazur 2010).|
|California Groundfish Fishermen||Low (1)||Mostly self-involved and longest-participating individuals are leaders and are followed not by any authoritative formal means, but by relationships.|
|Australian Antarctic Division||High (3)||The Director of the AAD is responsible for overseeing management of Australia's entire Antarctic region, including the subantarctic territory at Heard and McDonald Islands and Macquarie Island.|
|Cenderwasih fishers||Medium (2)||Leaders are generally well respected but the youth do not always agree with formal leadership (socio-economic basline survey 2008)|
|New Zealand Fishery Managers||High (3)||Manager guides team, and is the one who discuss with the Minister.|
|Patagonian Squid Trawlers||High (3)||Very hierarchical, where joint venture businessmen have a lot of control over fishing masters which have a lot of control over fishermen.|
|Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Managers||High (3)||While scientific advise is given to the director and the committee which is made up of government and industry representatives, it is ultimately approved by the Executive Council.|
|Association of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in Brazil||Low (1)|
|Lombok aquaculture farmers||Low (1)|
|California market squid fishermen||Low (1)||Serve as spokesperson. Can pull weight in management decisions, but not up to them.|
|Indonesian Institute of Sciences - LIPI||Missing|
|Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio)||Missing|
|California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Managers||High (3)||Senior scientists have a lot of say in management decisions. Many reports are team created, but often decisions are shaped by leaders.|
|Gili EcoTrust on Gili Trawangan||High (3)|
|Brazilian Institute of the Environment & Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA)||Missing|
|Isla Caballo AMPR Costa Rica||Low (1)|
|Paquera-Tambor AMPR Costa Rica||High (3)|
|SCUBA diving businesses on Gili Trawangan||High (3)|
|Gili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)||Medium (2)|
|Palito-Montero AMPR Costa Rica||Low (1)|
|Secretary of State for the Environment of Pará (SEMA) in Brazil||Missing|
|New Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers||High (3)||Board has authority to make decisions for rest of fishery. DWG can change internal rules on its own. Not legally binding, but within the industry considered necessary.|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.