|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Question||For this snapshot, what is the most recent annual management budget for the MPA (US$)?|
|Importance||The literature suggests that annual MPA management costs are lower per-unit area for larger MPAs (i.e., fixed cost below a threshold) (Balmford et al. 2004). MPA management budgets are rarely considered sufficient, thus estimating the shortfalls between current and required management funding can raise awareness about costs, and help to secure adequate resources upon implementation of MPAs (Ban et al. 2011).|
Most recent annual budget (total costs) for the MPA. If not quoted in US$ please convert from the original currency to US$ using the equivalent year exchange rate (i.e. the conversion rate from the same year you are quoting for the budget).
Conversions should be made using the following link: http://www.oanda.com/currency/converter/
|Sectors||Marine protected areas|
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999||$US|
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current||49500000 $US||AUD $54 million in 2014|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||Missing||Coud not find this|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||Missing|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||Missing|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||4728783 $US||$4,728,783 MBNMS: about 2.5 million dollars per year CBNMS: 2008: $627,000, adjusted for inflation 2014: 689,416 GFNMS: 2008: $1.4 million, adjusted for inflation 2014: 1,539,367 FY 1999 Budget: MBNMS: $980,491 GFNMS: $456,089 CDNMS: $121,421|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||Missing||Unknown|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||6000000 $US||for a period from 2009-2014. Regional office is responsible for obtaining funds on its own. It does not receive funding from the national government. This particular funding was received from IDT/GEF grant. At this point, based on our interview with Graham Edgar CORALINA does not have any major funding stream.|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||Missing|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||Not Applicable|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||113723 $US||This is the financial operating cost for the GABMP (CW) reported in the 2011 - 2012 State of the Parks Report. Operating costs include relevant annual business agreements, aerial surveillance and incident management. It excludes services provided by the Australian Fisheries Management Authority and the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||30000 $US||30,000 AU Dollars is budgeted annually for the Heard and McDonald Islands MPA (See Director of National Parks 2013/14 Annual Report).|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||Not Applicable|
|Cenderwasih governance system||867245 $US||Management budget for 2006: 8097531154 Rupiah, converted using 2006 exchange rate = US$ 867,245. http://www.dephut.go.id/Halaman/PDF/BTCNTC/BTNTC_2006.pdf|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.