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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow visibly does this actor group experience the effects of its own attempts to ameloriate the condition of this resource?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceFeedbacks between the ecological and social sub-systems inform ecological knowledge systems and adaptation responses (Gunderson and Holling 2002). The costs and benefits that actors perceive from management are likely influenced by how clear or visible improvements in resources are following attempts to ameliorate impacts. Recovery of a resource can be more or less difficult to detect depending on the nature of the resource - e.g., static, mobile, land-based, atmospheric; the knowledge and instruments available for measurement and monitoring, and whether system change is linear or non-linear. Where systems respond in a non-linear way, changes to the resource system from management may be disguised (Scheffer et al. 2003).
Definition

"This variables describes how visibly this actor group experiences the effects of its own attempts to ameloriate the condition of this resource. High: Actor groups can clearly see the effects of their own attempts to improve the condition of the resources. Replanting of trees is a very visible way of improving the condition of the resources. Low: It is very difficult or nearly impossible for actor groups to see the effects of their ownattempts to improve the condition of the commons. Fishers usually cannot see the effect of stopping their fishing. Similarly, farmers that reduce their use groundwater cannot see the recovery of an aquifer."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia This group does not attempt to ameliorate the condition.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesHigh (3)Changes in the forest are immediately visible to local forest users.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012) 
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District Governments ?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998) Actor group does not ameliorate.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneurs does not attempt to ameliorate.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesHigh (3)visibility of resource conditions is high in forests used by local people.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAMissingNO DATA
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia not clear
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersMedium (2)Indirect amelioration efforts (e.g. picking up trash, monitoring, making sure they don't impede individual whales), but how visible these efforts are is not clear.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Low (1)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Low (1)There is considerable uncertainty regarding resource stocks that are often highly contested. Part of this is the result of difficulties in validating scientific recommendations.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia Does not attempt to ameloriate
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States High (3)The visibility of ODS reductions is quite high given existing monitoring regimes.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersLow (1)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersHigh (3)Industrial producers may rapidly experience the economic effects of ODS regulations, although the environmental benefits are felt over a much longer period of time.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone SecretariatHigh (3)The Ozone Secretariat can rapidly experience/observe declines in ODS given the general reliability of monitoring regimes.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersLow (1)
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsLow (1)Microscopic commons
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, is highly visible (if you are underwater to look at it) - broken, dead, or bleached corals, and recovery can likewise be seen. But most fishers probably don't snorkel or dive to see damage to corals, so coded as medium.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers Not applicable; managers don't use the resource
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersMedium (2)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, is highly visible (if you are underwater to look at it) - broken, dead, or bleached corals. Depending on the extent of damage, recovery can range from a year to many years. Coded medium here because seeing the damage and effects of interventions require diving or use of ROVs.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, is highly visible (if you are underwater to look at it) - broken, dead, or bleached corals, and recovery can likewise be seen. But most fishers probably don't snorkel or dive to see damage to corals, so coded as medium.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Low (1)There is considerable uncertainty regarding resource stocks that are often highly contested. Part of this is the result of difficulties in validating scientific recommendations.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersLow (1)There is considerable uncertainty regarding resource stocks that are often highly contested. Part of this is the result of difficulties in validating scientific recommendations.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersHigh (3)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersMedium (2)Damage from blast fishing has been somewhat ameliorated, so they can see lower incidences of this. Actual recovery of the coral reef is visible because reefs are relatively accessible and you can clearly see old blast fishing sites. However visibility depends on snorkeling or diving equipment and cannot be seen by land.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Low (1)Given the absence of scientific knowledge it is difficult to observe the benefits of reductions in ODS emissions.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)Turtles are long-lived and slow to reproduce.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersLow (1)Very difficult to monitor the impact of interventions. Can monitor number of nesting turtles on the beaches but don't know survival rates of adults or hatchlings within MPA or beyond, hence no real visibility of success ameliorating pressures on turtles.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersMedium (2)Can see the aggregations and know where and when to expect them, but they are underwater and cannot be monitored without diving / snorkelling technologies.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersLow (1)Can monitor number of nesting turtles on the beaches but don't know survival rates of adults or hatchlings within MPA or beyond, hence no real visibility of success ameliorating pressures on turtles.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)The fishery is now closed, but stocks are yet to recover.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)Sea cucumbers slow growing and low reproductive capacity, managers allow fishing to continue while densities are low, so attempts to set minimum density limits do not exhibit noticeable improvements.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Low (1)Can monitor number of nesting turtles on the beaches but don't know survival rates of adults or hatchlings within MPA or beyond, hence no real visibility of success ameliorating pressures on turtles.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Medium (2)Need to do underwater surveys, but lobsters can be fairly visable underwater
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Recent observational data indicated a distinct increase in the incidence of blast fishing during 2011–2012 (Clifton 2013) - so coded as Low. Recovery of coral reefs is visible because reefs are relatively accessible and you can clearly see old blast fishing sites. However visibility depends on snorkelling or diving equipment and cannot be seen by land.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Very difficult to monitor the impact of interventions. Can monitor number of nesting turtles on the beaches but don't know survival rates of adults or hatchlings within MPA or beyond, hence no real visibility of success ameliorating pressures on turtles.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorLow (1)Long-lived and slow to reproduce.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Grouper and Snapper are relatively long-lived so replenishment is slightly slower than for other species.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersMissing
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Low (1)In order to see changes in trophic density you would need monitoring over time (and undersatnding of trophic levels) and diving technology
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Recovery of coral reefs is visible because reefs are relatively accessible and you can clearly see old blast fishing sites. However visibility depends on snorkelling or diving equipment and cannot be seen by land.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersMedium (2)underwater and cannot be monitored without diving / snorkelling technologies.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersMedium (2)Need underwater monitoring technologies. Some reefs and fish stocks are difficult to access and monitor
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersMedium (2)Recovery of the coral reef can range from a year to many years. Coded medium here because recovery takes a while
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Can monitor number of nesting turtles on the beaches but don't know survival rates of adults or hatchlings within MPA or beyond, hence no real visibility of success ameliorating pressures on turtles.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesMedium (2)Management efforts appear to take considerable time to improve resource conditions, mixed results on amelioration efforts. These species are long-lived and other drivers can have an impact on their stock numbers. Bycatch is one visible detection for improving overall the habitat, as by catch numbers have substantially decreased (NOAA Fisheries Report, 2013). Visibility in form of higher stocks.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)Very difficult to assess changes in populations - can look at relative abundance, by-catch and spatial dynamics.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersMissing
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationLow (1)Most sharks are long-lived and slow to reproduce, they are also wide ranging and may spend considerable amounts of time outside of the GMR
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAMedium (2)They have to be underwater and do monitoring
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersLow (1)It is difficult/nearly impossible to determine effects of their management actions, largely because monitoring of polar bear populations is so expensive that it rarely occurs.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenMedium (2)While amelioration efforts can take a long time to show success, it is fairly visible in terms of higher catch when success occurs.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)Changes are difficult to see given the size of the reef. However these actors function within a context of high management capacity, and have access to technologies and information to help them track their impacts.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Medium (2)Southern right whale population growth is visible as calving females and young can be observed from land at the Head of Bight and are observed in other monitoring programs (e.g. annual aerial survey), populations are increasing, but regeneration rates are fairly slow with females producing calves at 3-5 year intervals
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersMedium (2)Need underwater monitoring technologies. Some reefs and fish stocks are difficult to access and monitor, others occur in inshore areas.
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersMedium (2)While attempts to protect juveniles and spawning females may be progressing, catch-ability depends on a number of other factors (environment, Illex predation).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAMedium (2)Population regrowth are fairly visible, especially with the extensive monitoring programs in place.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersMedium (2)Humpback whale sightings are evident when populations are up, especially in the Monterey Bay NMS where whale watching increases when populations are booming and prey is available. Visibility could also be a factor of where productive waters are in a given season (e.g. near shore vs off shore).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersMedium (2)underwater and cannot be monitored without diving / snorkelling technologies.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionMissing
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersHigh (3)Return to the same areas to breed - so visibility is fairly high
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersMedium (2)visibility depends on snorkeling or diving equipment and cannot be seen by land.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersLow (1)Since turtles are long-lived, slow reproducing species, changes in management strategies may take years before outcomes can be determined.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersMedium (2)Population regrowth are fairly visible, especially with the extensive monitoring programs in place.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)Regulatory attempts to improve SBT stocks have not had an appreciable impact on resource conditions and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding (IUCN Redlist), although quotas for the most recent year in the snap shot were increased
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersMedium (2)visibility depends on snorkeling or diving equipment and cannot be seen by land.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationLow (1)Turtles are slow to reproduce - population changes take a long time to see
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersLow (1)Since turtles are long-lived, slow reproducing species, changes in management strategies may take years before outcomes can be determined.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers 
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationLow (1)Currently stocks are so depleted it is not known whether there are sufficient densities for them to recover.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAMedium (2)Humpback whale sightings are evident when populations are up, especially in the Monterey Bay NMS where whale watching increases when populations are booming and prey is available. Visibility may be a factor of where productivity is (near shore vs offshore).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)Changes are difficult to record though management agencies provide a lot of science on the success of management regulations and compliance to them.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI ResearchersLow (1)Changes in trophic density can take a while to appear, but the NWHI remains a predator-dominated reef ecosystem. Would need regular monitoring and diving equipment to see changes in trophic density.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)Damage to corals, for example from anchor damage or fishing with bottom gears in coral areas, is highly visible (if you are underwater to look at it) - broken, dead, or bleached corals, and recovery can likewise be seen. But most fishers probably don't snorkel or dive to see damage to corals, so coded as medium.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersMedium (2)Since it is difficult to count the number of shrimp directly, Managers rely on relative estimates of biomass (e.g. kg of shrimp per distance trawled or per hours trawls), compared against other years to obtain an index of biomass.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Low (1)Regulatory attempts to improve SBT stocks have not had an appreciable impact on resource conditions and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding (IUCN Redlist)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersMedium (2)Monitoring fish stocks and recover is difficult. This requires underwater visual census or catch monitoring to gauge health of a stock and its recovery, as well as recovery of habitats and non-target species.However management capacity is high and monitoring technology is available.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery ManagersLow (1)Have not really tried to ameliorate. Availability a reflect of a number of possible factors, so uncertain. Low landings recently more likely reflection of market. No stock assessment.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenMedium (2)Availability subject to multiple factors, conservation only one of them.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersMedium (2)Abundance is mostly determined by catches, but availability is subject to a number of factors.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Medium (2)High site fidelity for breeding so visibility of breeding and population is fairly high. This species has a population breeding time of 17.6 months, which is slower than many other Pinniped species. Populations are small and genetically isolated.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersLow (1)Have not seen evidence of use effect, so likely due to Biology can recovery quickly. However, visibility would be low because availability depends on a number of factors and so even if amelioration attempts would be successful, may not be seen by fishery.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersMedium (2)While attempts to protect juveniles and spawning females may be progressing, catch-ability depends on a number of other factors (environment, Illex predation)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing