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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryThis governance system refers to the rules and regulations used to govern activities in the Macquarie Island Marine Park. The park is governed in accordance with Macquarie Island Marine Park. It is now part of the Southwest Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network. The Macquarie Island Marine Park is located to the east of the island and includes waters between 3-200 nautical miles from shore. The central portion is a highly protected zone, with 2 habitat protection zones to the north and south. It is now part of the SE Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network
SubtypeFormal Governance System
SectorMarine protected areas
Begin Date2001
ExplanationMarine park was designated in 1999; became effective in 2001.
End DateCurrent (2014)
ExplanationCoded as of the end of 2014
Governance ScaleState-based policy
Governance System Description 
Governance TriggerNot Applicable
Type Of Formal GovernanceManagement plan
ExplanationManagement plans have been designed and implemented under the appropriate legislation.
Mpa Internal Natural BoundariesLow (1)
ExplanationNo-take areas are not clearly distinguished from habitat species management zone on the basis of depth or benthic characteristics.
Mpa Migratory Life HistoryThe MPA and Nature Reserve are critical as a breeding ground for a number of migratory seabirds such as the Wandering and Light-mantled albatross, and penguins such as the Royal Penguin.
ExplanationThe MPA and Nature Reserve are critical as a breeding ground for a number of migratory seabirds such as the Wandering and Light-mantled albatross, and penguins such as the Royal Penguin.
Mpa Threats To Migratory Sp["Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]
ExplanationThe major threats to migratory species within the MPA are bycatch in the small toothfish fishery and potential habitat threats. Mineral and petroleum exploration are not currently allowed within the MPA; nor is the dumping of waste within the MPA. Only passive transit of vessels is allowed in the highly protected zone.
Mpa ThreatsThe only major threat potentially affecting resources f
Governance Knowledge Use["Scientific knowledge"]
ExplanationScientific knowledge is used almost, if not, totally exclusively. There is no resident population on the island other than researchers and workers for the Australian Antarctic Division.
Pa Car PrinciplesYes (3)
CentralizationHighly centralized (4)
ExplanationGovernance is controlled heavily by major state bodies, most notably, the Department of the Environment. As there is no resident population, the level of centralization is unsurprising.
Distance To MarketsMore than 1000km (4)
ExplanationMacquarie Island is located approximately 1500km from Tasmania. However, the only harvested species (Patagonian toothfish) serve mostly the Japanese and US markets.
Horizontal Coordination 
Mpa Iucn Somewhat Strict Zones64.2 %
Explanation64.2% of the marine reserve is a habitat/species protection zone (IUCN IV) out of a total area of 162000 square kilometers. The remainder is a habitat protection (IUCN Ia)
Mpa Iucn Sustainable Zones 0 %
ExplanationThere are no category V and VI sustainable use zones in the Macquarie MPA
Mpa BudgetNot Applicable
Mpa ConnectivityNo (1)
ExplanationThere is no clear evidence that connectivity was considered as part of the design of this reserve. Although it is now part of the South-east Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network Management Plan it is somewhat of an outlier from the other members of the network.
Mpa Migratory Threats And ReduxThreat reduction concentrates on preventing and limiting bycatch in the toothfish fishery and preserving foraging grounds for migratory species.
Mpa Motivation["Ecological value", "Feasibility"]
ExplanationThe Macquarie Island Nature Reserve has been protected in one way or another since the early 1900's. The area is important for a number of migratory species. It appears that the area was chosen fior an MPA because of this value; but also because the absence of a human population made it fairly easy to design and implement.
Mpa Primary Goal (In Practice)["Biodiversity conservation"]
ExplanationBiodiversity conservation is the main goal of this management plan; although it does include consideration of threat reduction and protection of migratory species.
Mpa Protection["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats"]
Metric DiversityHigh: Many metrics for success (3)
ExplanationManagement plans include a wide range of goals, including preservation of species and habitats, and the elimination of invasive species and minimization of potential threats. The management plan adopts an ecosystem-based approach to management and aims to coordinate regulations with the nature reserve and CCAMLR.
Pa Iucn Strict Zones35.8 %
Explanation35.8% of the marine reserve is a no-take area (IUCN Ia) out of a total area of 162000 square kilometers. The remainder is a habitat protection (IUCN IV)
Social Ecological FitMedium (2)
ExplanationBecause many of the species it aims to protect are migratory (i.e. Light-mantled albatross, Royal Penguin) or do not appear to fully occupy the MPA (i.e. Patagonian toothfish) it does not match the spatial distribution of these resources. However, within the spatial limitations there is a good fit between the rule and the resources they mean to govern.
Mpa Migratory BenefitYes
ExplanationProtects important breeding grounds and foraging areas
Governance System Spatial Extent162000