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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryThe California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan has been in effect since 2005, and includes a variety of rules and regulations specific to California's market squid fishery.
SubtypeFormal Governance System
SectorFisheries (Stock-specific)
Begin Date2005
End Datecurrent
Governance ScaleSub-national (State, Province, District)
ExplanationState based (California)
Governance System Description 
ExplanationThe squid market was an open-access fishery before 1998. In 2004 a Restricted Access Program was created that became effective April 1, 2005. The Market Squid Fishery Management Plan establishes a management program for California’s market squid resource and procedures by which the Commission will manage the market squid fishery. The goals of the MSFMP are to manage the market squid resource to ensure long term resource conservation and sustainability, reduce the potential for overfishing, and institute a framework for management that will be responsive to environmental and socioeconomic changes. Market squid is often caught along other coastal pelagic species, and thus managers from squid advise the Pacific Marine Council. Market squid managers at the California Department of Fish and Wildlife manage both Highly Migratory Species and Coastal Pelagic Species. The MSFMP has been developed under the provisions set forth by California’s Marine Life Management Act (MLMA), which became law in 1999. The MLMA created state policies, goals, and objectives to govern the conservation, sustainable use, and restoration of California’s living marine resources such as the squid resource. CDFW's Marine Region works to maintain the sustainability of the fishery by monitoring commercial landings and collecting biological information such as weight, length, sex, maturity, and age. CDFW also collaborates with other researchers and institutions to gather information to increase our understanding of squid biology. California's Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) and Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Project staff collects, analyzes, and reports stock assessment data and develops management recommendations for CPS and HMS.
Governance Triggerslow continuous change
ExplanationThe squid market was an open-access fishery before 1998. However, in 1983, AB 513 allowed the Commission to specify the days and times when squid could be taken. No squid could be taken with a roundhaul net in Monterey between noon on Friday and midnight on Sunday, and any weekday between noon and midnight. Then in 1997, SB 364 established a moratorium on new squid vessels. A permit was needed to use roundhaul, and a permit was needed to attract squid by light from a vessel. A commercial squid light boat owner permit was given a fee. These limitations were effective in 1998. The squid fishery, while historically dates back to the 1860s, only became a high profile fishery in the 1980s and 1990s when global market demand rapidly increased, as did participation in the fishery. Finally, in 2004 a Restricted Access Program was created that became effective April 1, 2005.
Type Of Formal GovernanceManagement plan
ExplanationThe MSFMP has been developed under the provisions set forth by California’s Marine Life Management Act (MLMA). The Federal government manages the marine resources and fishing activities of the United States (US) through the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA).
Governance Knowledge Use["", "Scientific knowledge"]
ExplanationScientific knowledge: While some regulations are a reflection of local factors (e.g. weekend closures are a social construction), management is scientifically focused. Little local knowledge.
CentralizationSomewhat centralized (3)
ExplanationState government makes the decisions, but federal government makes larger over arching fishery decisions (e.g. dictates larger policies).
Distance To MarketsLess than 10km (1)
ExplanationA minor portion is sold locally. Most are sold more than 1000 km away.
Horizontal CoordinationBoth formal and informal
ExplanationManagers and fishers know each other and engage in formal coordination through stakeholder engagement practices and public hearings, but also informally know each other.
Metric DiversityMedium: Few metrics for success (2)
ExplanationPrimarily ecosystem health and stock health. The MLMA calls for achieving its primary goal of sustainability by meeting several objectives: • preventing overfishing; • rebuilding depressed stocks; • ensuring conservation; • promoting habitat protection and restoration. Capacity Goal: maintain a sustainable squid resource and provide for a fishery that is diverse, stable, and profitable. (FMA 2005)
Social Ecological FitMedium (2)
ExplanationCDFW manages squid because they are found predominately in state waters. This includes a wide range of habitats. A more fit management plan would incorporate the entire distribution of the population, which would also then incorporate all users, rather than state-based licenses. This would allow users to move easier according to squid migration, and provide equal access to users.
Governance System Spatial Extent13688.08
Explanation5,285 sq mi 13688.08 sq km (coastal state waters) - though can influence total EEZ (through advising Council)