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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryThe Wakatobi National Park is officially managed under the Ministry of Forestry (PHKA; National Act No. 5 1990). Governance is now a strategic partnership involving various alliances between TNC/WWF, the PHKA, the district government of Wakatobi and the tour operators. The main emphasis of the park's management is the eradication of destructive fishing and illegal marine resource use.
SubtypeFormal Governance System
SectorMarine protected areas
Begin Date2008
ExplanationThe year re-zoning and new management plan issued
End DateCurrent 2014
ExplanationA 25-year management plan was established in 2008
Governance ScaleState-based policy
ExplanationState based policy applied to a single MPA, within the Sulawesi Tenggara Province
Governance System DescriptionCollaborative management
ExplanationA strategic partnership between involving various alliances between TNC/WWF, the PHKA (Ministry of Forestry), the district government of Wakatobi, and tour operators (Clifton 2013)
Governance Triggerslow continuous change
ExplanationSlow continuous change: Concerns about over-fishing and declines in iconic species (e.g. turtles)
Type Of Formal GovernanceManagement plan
ExplanationManagement plan: The Act is established through the 25-year management plan
Mpa Internal Natural BoundariesMedium (2)
ExplanationThe MPA as a whole covers an ecologically coherent area. Some of the no-take zones cover full reefs/atolls (fulfilling this variable), but some no-take zones are only portions of continuous reef, therefore coded as medium.
Mpa Migratory Life HistoryYes - turtle nesting beaches
Explanation100% of turtle nesting sites protected
Mpa Threats To Migratory Sp["Resource competition"]
ExplanationBiggest threat to turtles is probably egg consumption and bycatch - although this is apparently at low levels now. "Exceptionally high abundance of oceanic dolphin and whale species (5 species recorded: Beaked Whale, Pilot Whale, Sperm Whale, Bryde's Whale and Melonhead Whale) occurs in Wakatobi” - but couldn't find any detail on threats or evidence of any management activities for them - http://www.coraltriangleinitiative.org/sites/default/files/resources/8_Geographic%20Priorities%20for%20Marine%20Biodiversity%20Conservation%20in%20Indonesia.pdf
Mpa ThreatsOver-fishing; illegal fishing
ExplanationThe main threats are over-fishing, and the use of destructive fishing methods - by local users. Illegal fishing, e.g. for the live reef fish trade, is an issue, but difficult to discern the level - international users.
Governance Knowledge Use["Scientific knowledge"]
ExplanationFocus on scientific knowledge reflects the involvement of conservation NGOs - TNC/WWF - who were heavily involved in the original RAP assessments, zoning and rules of the MPA - although it is unclear if any current monitoring data is feeding into management.
Pa Car PrinciplesPartially (2)
ExplanationThe WNP is considered to adhere to two of the required criteria (based on documentation to the Coral Triangle Atlas) Representation and Replication are cited, with the WNP including at least 396 coral species and 572 fish species (Rapid Ecological Assessment, 2003). And No take zones were designated in each main group of islands. Coded as 'partially' as awareness of the principles in the zoning is evident, but the extent to which they were applied is unclear. Ref: CTMPAs Wakatobi National Park information requirements
CentralizationSomewhat decentralized (2)
ExplanationPolicy in Indonesia shifted to be more decentralized (in 1999), central government set budgets, but local governments able to decide how to spend, lots of NGO involvement
Distance To MarketsBetween 100km-1000km (3)
ExplanationNearest city is Bau-Bau on Buton Island - this is approximately 120km
Mpa Iucn Somewhat Strict Zones58 %
ExplanationTraditional use zone = 8040 km2 – fishing by wakatobi residents only
Mpa Iucn Sustainable Zones 36 %
ExplanationGeneral use zone =4957km2 – all fishers permitted
Mpa BudgetMissing
ExplanationCoud not find this
Mpa ConnectivityYes (3)
ExplanationConnectivity was considered during the zoning of the WNP. Information on larval dispersal and climate change was not yet available but the following rules of thumb were used in Wakatobi zoning design revision:  Size of no-take zones: minimum = 13 km2 / maximum = 365 km2  Distance between no-take zones: minimum = 10 km / maximum = 20 km  30% of coral reefs (fringing, barrier, atoll and patch)  40% of mangrove forests  20% of seagrass beds  100% of Fish Spawning Aggregation sites  100% of turtle nesting sites  100% of seabird nesting sites
Mpa Migratory Threats And ReduxProtection of key-life stages for green turtles - all nesting beaches protected and some sea-grass habitat protected
ExplanationSea-turtles - nesting beaches protected (n=3) “Olive Ridley and Green turtles, especially those from Eastern Indonesia, find important nesting, foraging, and migratory grounds in Wakatobi” Quote from the following doc: http://www.coraltriangleinitiative.org/sites/default/files/resources/8_Geographic%20Priorities%20for%20Marine%20Biodiversity%20Conservation%20in%20Indonesia.pdf
Mpa Motivation["Ecological value", "High human impact to mitigate"]
Explanationestablished in an attempt to reduce destructive fishing practices and the threat of overfishing (WWF/TNC 2003 report: rapid ecological assessment Wakatobi NP).
Mpa Primary Goal (In Practice)["Biodiversity conservation", "Other"]
ExplanationReflects influence and agenda of conservation-focused NGOs (TNC/WWF). Also a large focus is economic development (through tourism) - focus of Wakatobi District Government, which reflects the need for local administrations to achieve greater financial self-sufficiency in the current era of decentralised government within Indonesia (Clifton 2013)
Mpa Protection["Reducing threats"]
ExplanationThe main aim was to reduce destructive fishing
Metric DiversityHigh: Many metrics for success (3)
ExplanationMPA manages for a range of outcomes - both ecological and social objectives (including: coral cover, fish spawning, fish abundance, turtles, seagrass, seabird habitat, resource use of users within the park) - although it has been difficult to find this information
Pa Iucn Strict Zones3.16 %
Explanationtotal of Core, Marine, and Tourism Zones within the MPA, which are the only areas of no-take. The whole MPA is considered IUCN II, but "extractive use (of living or dead material) is not considered consistent with the objectives of category II" - IUCN
Social Ecological FitLow (1)
ExplanationThe MPA encompasses the entire area (islands, coral reefs etc) and the boundaries of the MPA align with the boundaries of the district government. No-take areas are minimal (3% of MPA).
Mpa Migratory BenefitNo
ExplanationVery little data on migratory species within the Wakatobi, but anecdotal reports that turtles have been declining.