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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryIn July 2006 President Bush signed Presidential Proclamation 8031 and created the monument. A 15 year management plan was produced in 2008. The mission of the Monument is "To forever protect and perpetuate ecosystem health and diversity and Native Hawaiian cultural significance of Papahānaumokuākea.”
SubtypeFormal Governance System
SectorMarine protected areas
Begin Date2006
ExplanationJune 15, 2006 Pres. Bush signed the Presidential Proclamation 8031 to create the Monument.
End Datecurrent
Governance ScaleState-based policy
ExplanationNational law
Governance System DescriptionThe Monument Act of 2006
ExplanationThe Monument Act is the implementation of the national marine Monument for the NWHI. The co-trustees created and signed a Memorandum of Agreement that established the roles and responsibilities of the management groups and mechanisms for managing the Monument. The official management plan for the Monument was produced in 2008 and details these roles. The management of the Monument has been described by Kittinger et al. (2011) as a “nested, quasiautonomous decision-making unit that operates at multiple scales and nurtures diversity for dynamic responses in the face of change.”
Governance Trigger 
ExplanationMore opportunistic then for a specific reason or change.
Type Of Formal GovernanceManagement plan
ExplanationA management plan was produced in 2008 by the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The Monument is simply an agreement between the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the State of Hawaii, which form the co-trusteeship that manages the Monument.
Mpa Internal Natural BoundariesLow (1)
ExplanationThe Monument boundary extends into deep, pelagic waters so not clearly delineated
Mpa Migratory Life HistoryGreen Turtle - nesting, foraging, basking grounds
ExplanationGreen turtles migrate widely throughout the Pacific Ocean and the NWHI is an area where the species rest, forage and breed. Over 90% of nesting occurs at the French Frigate shoals (Balazs, 1992).
Mpa Threats To Migratory Sp["Resource competition", "Habitat destruction", "Other"]
ExplanationMarine debris is a huge problem for wildlife in NWHI - much of the marine debris is in the form of derelict fishing nets, mostly trawl nets, from North Pacific fisheries. Plastic ingested by sea birds at sea and also fed to chicks at colonies (info from management plan). In the 1940s there was extensive habitat damage at the French Frigate Shoals rookery (Balazs, 1976; Balazs, 2004). Climate changes predictions - islands might be underwater in the future; increased el nino
Mpa Threatsmarine debris; climate change;
Governance Knowledge Use["Scientific knowledge", "Local/traditional knowledge"]
ExplanationThe Monument uses both types of knowledge to manage the MPA. Both scientific knowledge and traditional knowledge are part of the mandate to protect the area and are included in the action plans for monitoring the resources.
Pa Car PrinciplesYes (3)
ExplanationFulfills all the principles, although not explicitly stated
CentralizationHighly centralized (4)
Explanationthe governance system is highly centralized because the co-trusteeship is composed of state and federal government bodies.
Distance To MarketsBetween 100km-1000km (3)
ExplanationClosest market is Main Hawaiian Islands, however there is no resource extraction currently allowed in the NWHI.
Horizontal Coordination 
Mpa Iucn Somewhat Strict Zones0 %
Mpa Iucn Sustainable Zones 0 %
Mpa BudgetMissing
Mpa ConnectivityYes (3)
ExplanationA range of areas and levels of connectivity were considered when establishing the MPA. The NWHI has a high range of different areas, such as nesting grounds, coral reefs, atolls and sand banks, deep water foraging grounds and sea grass areas. Ranges of distances were not explicit.
Mpa Migratory Threats And ReduxGreen turtles
ExplanationMarine debris clean up invasive species elimination
Mpa Motivation["Ecological value", "Feasibility"]
ExplanationIntact ecosystems, but nobody lives there.
Mpa Primary Goal (In Practice)["Biodiversity conservation", "Species of conservation concern", "Protection of migratory species", "Exclusion of a specific threat", "Social goals"]
Mpa Protection["Protecting key life history stage(s)", "Reducing threats", "Encompassing entire habitat"]
Metric DiversityHigh: Many metrics for success (3)
ExplanationSuccess metrics range from cultural perseverance in the Monument to ecological health (which includes fisheries, pollution, biodiversity, migratory species, trophic density, etc.)
Pa Iucn Strict Zones100 %
ExplanationThe NWHI MPA is categorized as an IUCN Category Ib, where long-term ecological integrity is preserved with minimal modern infrastructure and zero resource extraction in order to allow future generations experience the area.
Social Ecological FitHigh (3)
ExplanationAll no-take and for many of the key species/ecosystems - monk seals, coral reefs, green turtles = good, but for migratory seabirds probably not as good as spend time outside of the MPA.
Mpa Migratory BenefitYes
ExplanationBy protecting the resources, reducing interactions with fisheries and preserving a robust ecosystem for migratory species. Monitoring and research.
Governance System Spatial Extent