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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Component

SummaryLocal communities (generally traditional sea tenure holders) living around MPAs. Generally local people consider hemselves both fishers and farmers. Fish are caught using a variety of fishing gear, with hand line and gleaning are the most common. Fish targeted include reef fish – particularly wrasse, grouper, snapper, parrotfish and surgeonfish. Other important targets include pelagic species, sea cucumber and shellfish.
SubtypeLocal Resource User Group
Interest HeterogeneityLow (1)
ExplanationPrimarily subsistence fishing.
Costs Of ExitYes
ExplanationDependence on the fishery is variable and many households also farm, but fishing is still an important livelihood
Proportionality (Of Costs And Benefits)No
ExplanationReceive more benefits than costs - fishing is central to their culture and society.
Actor Group CoordinationBoth formal and informal
ExplanationInformal coordination, such as sasi, and formal coordination through the site-specific management plans. The fishermen abide by traditional management practices (sasi) for certain species and follow a strong leadership system that relies on pressure from community members to conserve as much as possible. (Agostini, 2012; Bawole, 2012).
Leadership["Formal leader"]
ExplanationVIllages that practice sasi management (traditional management practices) have village leaders, traditional leaders, and religious leaders. They all play a role in controlling use and access to marine resources and are elected by popular vote. There is one village leader (kepala kampung) who serves as the link between the higher local level government officials and central Raja Ampat government (Mcleod, 2009)
Leadership AccountabilityHigh (3)
ExplanationThe village leader is elected by the other community members to oversee all sasi practices, therefore their decisions directly affect everyone in the group and make them accountable (Mcleod, 2009)
Leadership AuthorityHigh (3)
ExplanationDecisions concerning which marine resources are open for fishing and which are closed are determined by the leaders. They control the use and access to marine resources.
Actor Group TrustHigh (3)
Past CollaborationHigh (3)
ExplanationStrong cultural history. Strong social capital within the group - e.g. sasi marine management
Personal CommunicationMore than once a year (5)
Remote CommunicationMore than once a year (5)
ExplanationPersonal communication likley to be more prominent